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Stephanie C. Fox

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Controversies by QueenBeeEdit

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???????????????????????????????????? Queen Bee - with green dot Pastel Pink Peony Blossom in the Shady Garden

Blog Posts – Stephanie C. Fox on Law, Politics, Women, and More

Welcome to the blog of QueenBeeEdit!

This blog will discuss the issues that my books deal with:

Women’s rights, which covers many categories, environmental collapse, human overpopulation, history/herstory, Asperger’s/autism and Aspie voices, banksters and their role in economic meltdowns, people in fiction, Hawai‘i, Kuwait, other nations in the Middle East, cats, and travel.

My husband, David D. Haines, Ph.D., a molecular cell biologist and immunologist, took me to Kuwait in 2005. We took our cat, Scheherazade, with us (well, I brought her and met David there). I wrote a travelogue about our six-month stay. The travelogue includes our personal experiences, a brief history, and lots of photographs of museums and points of interest.

 AlSadu House - Museum Room with Rug Showing 'Uwairjan Design  AlSadu House - Weaving Room with Looms and Yarns  Scheherazade Cat - Food Photo - Settling Into Her Xmas Dinne

On a trip to Hawai`i – to O`ahu and the Big Island of Hawai`i – I made sure to visit `Iolani Palace and to enjoy everything for another travelogue.

Later, I pulled the history sections out of that travelogue to offer as a history book.

Gate - Ua Mau Ke Ea Oka Aina I Ka Pono - motto  Coconut tree in the yard - full of ripe coconuts

Aliiolani Hale - King Kamehameha I Statue  Princess Ka'iulani Statue - triangle of land in her estate

In researching the alarming phenomenon of honeybee and other bee colony collapse disorder, I gathered many photographs of bees and flowers.

Natural Honeycomb - 3

Variegated-Leaf Lavender Iris - Portrait with the Peony Leaves  Raspberry Pink Peony - Portrait - 2014

Bee in Flight Over an Iris - Close-Up

The banksters, hedge fundsters, and corporatists of Wall Street, who finance colony collapse disorder via lobbyists, are described in The Book of Thieves, and this narrative continues in The Bear Guarding the Beehive.

New York Stock Exchange - Across from the J.P. Morgan Residence

In the Nae-Née series, a dystopian tale of human overpopulation and ecosystems collapse, I call this group Farmers with a capital “F”.

Human overpopulation and its effect on the ecosystem also fascinates me. So do police surveillance states, nanotechnology, lifespan extension in medicine, and social initiatives to “save” the planet. All of the issues I have written motivate me to use dystopian science fiction consider how, if carried to their logical conclusions, i.e. a train wreck of epic proportions.

The result has been my Nae-Née series. “Nae-Née” is a brand name for a birth control nanite. It translates as “Not-Born”.

The cover art for those books shows elements of my many interests. You can view it on this site’s page of my books.

A beautiful black-and-orange-and-white Kuwaiti calico cat named Scheherazade will soon have her own book.

She was a war hero whom my husband met and adopted on Failaka Island, Kuwait. Here she is:

Scheherazade Cat Sleeping

If you would like to buy one of my books, they are available at Amazon and Barnes & Noble, as Kindle and Nook books, and in print.

This blog discusses all of the issues that my books deal with and more.

Controversial issues and statements will not be avoided. They are what makes life interesting and worth pondering.

Articles and websites will be shared here, with my thoughts on them.

Enjoy perusing it all.

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Don’t Expect Celebration of a Fascist Authoritarian.

It has finally happened.

Hell has frozen over, or whatever this state of disunion is.

We are officially living in the Untied States of America, and that is not a typographical error.

The size of the crowd must have been deeply disappointing to man whose ego is inextricably wrapped up in perceptions of size.

Trump inauguration crowd on the National Mall, left, versus Obama inauguration crowd, right. (CBS photo)

An authoritarian fascist has been enabled to eviscerate our rights and safety, and he immediately got going on that, cutting funding for programs and grants that work against violence against women. What else can one expect from a rapist and pedophile who has been allowed to go free?!

An abomination is FLOTUS, and her stupid-looking fashions are being advertised on the White House website. Don’t believe it? Check this out:

White House website touts Melania Trump’s modeling and jewelry line

From a Harvard-educated lawyer FLOTUS to a trophy bride in one ceremony.

Pathetic.

Too many of our voters have allowed prejudice against Liberals and non-whites to cloud their assessments and analysis of the policies that have benefitted them.

Way Too Many People Think Obamacare and the Affordable Care Act Are Different Things

There is no excuse for ignorance, nor for stupidity. Read, question, research.

I like to read the online academic publication called The Conversation each day.

The articles in it cover all of the topics that venerable newspapers such as The New York Times and The Washington Post – publications that the Pumpkingropenfuhrer disdains and may attempt to block or ban – offer.

Today, one in particular jumped out at me. I read it with interest. It has a lot to say about why we are in this appalling situation, this trap of having no one, neither sane nor reliable, at the helm of our nuclear launch codes, our government, nor our diplomatic and intelligence apparatus.

Call it cognitive dissonance if you don’t want to think about what the authors have to say.

Call it a reality analysis if you are willing to engage your brain to at least attempt to understand how this travesty happened.

Why each side of the partisan divide thinks the other is living in an alternate reality

It starts off by talking about how those who voted for this situation want growth.

Growth?! We need LESS of that, NOT more. The Earth is finite. We are overpopulated.

The celebrants of the rise of this fascist Pumpkingropenfuhrer want the American Dream of property with a house, a job with a comfortable income, marriage, and children, for all…exponentially, in perpetuity.

They don’t even want to contemplate the truth, which is that growth is over, and that we cannot, therefore, all realistically consume resources at the rate that Americans were led to expect to be able consume post-World War II while also reproducing exponentially, which is the only way that any species reproduces.

Soil fertility only has a few more decades left. Our oceans are heating up, killing off coral reefs, as we overfish and deplete species after species. Hunting endangered species continues.

Presenting eco-friendly policies as business-growth opportunities is wise, but it will only get us so far. Libertarian views of reproducing as much as everyone who wishes to reproduce must go.

Anything else is wishful, unrealistic thinking. But…that is the ONLY point of view that the supporters of the Pumpkingropenfuhrer are willing to entertain. That, and infotainment.

Get ready to have a century or so worth of great, inclusive laws that make life worth living erased.

Get ready to have religion shoved down your throat, whether or not it’s your preferred brand of religion, whether or not you even want any.

Get ready to see women, non-whites, disabled people, anyone who isn’t wealthy, and people on the autism spectrum lose out on quality of life.

Get ready to see the ecosystem plundered to the last drop of every drop of water and fossil fuel, and species carelessly depleted.

Get ready to see Internet slowdowns and jamming, and your favorite sites blocked.

Get ready to see the banksters, hedge fundsters, and corporatists – the real-life “Farmers” that I write about – rob us blind with smug faces.

Get ready to see our nation instantly lose all respect around the world that we ever had.

Get ready, because we are under the control of selfish fools who live only in the present, with neither thought nor interest in the long-term.

We are in big trouble.

Good luck to us.

We will need it.

Book 3 of the Nae-Née Series is Out: New World Order Underwater.

At last, I can announce that I am the author of a completed series of novels on human overpopulation.

Here are their covers, done by artists Katelyn M. Gagnon (Book 1) and Steve Palmerton (Books 2 and 3):

   

The name of the series is Nae-Née, for a birth control nanite. The name is Scottish-French, and translates as “Not-Born”.

The novels each include a detailed, categorized bibliography of academic and other sources. The topics explored in the world of Nae-Née include:

  • human overpopulation
  • abortion access
  • reproductive rights and access laws, both statutes and judicial law
  • migrants, elections
  • banksters/hedge fundsters/corporatists
  • education
  • economic resources and quality of life
  • plastics/recycling/going green
  • police misconduct
  • martial law readiness
  • surveillance/computer hackers
  • Asperger’s
  • genetic editing
  • vaccines
  • biological and chemical weapons
  • International Criminal Court
  • food insecurity
  • biodiversity loss/disruption
  • human encroachment onto animal territory
  • climate change
  • water depletion and scarcity
  • sea level rise
  • air pollution
  • fossil fuel and nuclear fuel use and consequences
  • nature and what we ought to appreciate

This is a list of the titles in the series, which includes 3 books. The third one is the conclusion to the series, and its cover art is in process. The others are available now. These are the titles:

Nae-Née – Birth Control: Infallible, with Nanites and Convenience for All

Avril, the narrator, a professor and lawyer who lives in Connecticut, U.S.A., envisions a birth control nanite. Her husband, Hamish, a nanobotic engineer and physician, makes it a reality. She chooses its name, and an advertising agency tacks on a jingle that mimics the U.S. Pledge to the Flag. At first, Nae-Née is simply a safe, voluntary, and convenience birth control device. Then the United Nations co-opts it as a universal solution to human overpopulation, and promulgates a treaty requiring its use by the entire planet. The treaty enters into force. Meanwhile, the planet’s sea levels rise significantly, straining resources such as food, water, and access to arable land and living space, emphasizing the need for this policy.

Vaccine: The Cull – Nae-Née Wasn’t Enough

Since the adoption of the Nae-Née policy, the banksters, hedge fundsters, and corporatists (collectively called “Farmers” with a capital “F” by Avril) have decided that, as the human population of the Earth is still increasing, something must be done to not only stop this but to reverse it. Following the ideas of the Georgia Guidestones, seen on the book’s cover art, they hatch a secret plot to depopulate the human species down to half a billion via a vaccine. The vaccine is mandatory for the entire population. Some elite few are given harmless vaccines – but most are targeted for the Cull. Avril and Hamish must protect their family while gathering data on the Cull via Hamish’s flying swarms of nanobotic cameras.

New World Order Underwater: The Nae-Née Inventors Strike Back

It is now a year after the Cull began, and the process is complete. Avril and Hamish have brought their family home to Connecticut to a changed world. She assesses the new reality and reviews the masses of data that the nanobotic swarms have accumulated. Avril is determined to do something with it all, but she must understand and be able to prove who the perpetrators of the Cull are. She and Hamish have some idea of this answer, but not yet enough…until the Farmers invite them on a retreat. They accept, secretly releasing their nanobots to gather more information. Soon she is ready to use it. The Farmers find that they cannot treat other human beings as a crop to do with as they please and then enjoy the spoils of their covert resource war.

The novels are available in digital form as Nook and Kindle e-books, and in print.

This is my Amazon Author Page, which lists all of my books:

https://www.amazon.com/Stephanie-C.-Fox/e/B007IZ4ZIS/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_2?qid=1402562514&sr=8-2

Together and separately, they show what it would look like as resource scarcity confronts us, what it would be like if various solutions were applied to this problem – both humane and criminal – and what would have to be done to correct society after that, to restore democracy and liberty.

If the ideas presented seem extreme or far-fetched, that’s because they are, and because illustrating the problems confronting us today required it.

As I wrote these novels, I had to force myself to imagine the events depicted in them, however shocking, and to tell myself that it is not real.

That enabled me to keep writing and make these novels available to others.

So now they are completed, and I hope that they make people think, because dystopian fiction is meant to show what can go wrong.

It is not an instruction manual.

It is a warning.

Revolt Against the Pumpkingropenfuhrer. Now. No Need to Wait.

People have been asking when to revolt. Do it now. We’re out of reasons to wait.

The Electoral College has failed to go rogue, perhaps out of cowardice in the face of state legislation that seeks to constrain them via fines and/or prison time (even though federal law supersedes state law.

So…how to revolt? Little discussion of that has gone on.

Suggestions:

Run your own lives as if all of the liberal laws that you possibly can continue to live by are intact.

Refuse to stop writing and saying whatever you want to write and say.

Unlike the supporters of the Pumpkingropenfuhrer (I’m dubbing him that!), we don’t suggest criminal actions, so we’re not doing anything wrong.

Be thoughtful, be stealthy, and be determined.

Here’s one example: eco-friendly fuel efficiency.

Policy uncertainty discourages innovation and hurts the environment

Here’s another: continue to exercise your 1st Amendment rights, which to freedom FROM as well as OF religion, to freedom of speech, to freedom of the press/media, to peaceably assemble, and to write to your politicians to tell them what laws you want and what laws you don’t want.

Don’t be concerned that our incoming GOP Congress and Pumpkingropenfuhrer don’t care what the popular majority want. Do it anyway.

We’re watching a century of great laws that have made life freer and happier under attack by a group of childish brats who like to control others.

They call us sore losers while acting like fascists.

We’re not anything of the kind. What a ridiculous thing to say about people who genuinely care about the laws of the Founders, plus those that their successors fought to get for us (the end of apartheid, the right to control our own fertility, and the right for us all over the age of 18 to vote, to name just a few of those rights).

Women were force-fed in prisons so that I can vote and participate at all political levels, so I’m not going to shut up and go away.

When those who serve in the military do so, it’s not so that they and they alone shall have a say over all of the rest of us.

That flies in the face of democracy; the military does the bidding of the civilian government, and works to safeguard our freedoms.

The events of Book 2 of my Nae-Née series are about to play out: economic and ecosystems collapse, with as much of it disguised as “taking care of us”. Don’t believe it. Don’t trust a word that they say. And watch your bank accounts. Watch when the dollar gets devalued and you suddenly only have a small percentage of the value of what you previously had.

In the world of the Nae-Née series, a group of monsters just like the much-publicized Cabinet picks do their best to erase our freedoms, our finances, our ecosystems, and our lives.

I call these monsters the Farmers. They are the wealthy, indifferent rich – the one-percenters that are now on display…er, on parade…in the news.

A one-percenter is someone who is in the top one percent of the population that controls the bulk of our society’s wealth.

This graph shows the distribution of wealth in the United States. The portion owned and controlled by a mere one percent of the population is so great that the graph would have had to have been very, very tall to demonstrate it. Instead, that portion was chopped up into 3 pieces and placed on either side of the peak on the right side of the graph. (YouTube/politizane and Business Insider)

But what about that term “Farmer” that I love to use, the one spelled with a capital “F”?

Have a look at the wealth distribution in the United States, complete with graphs and charts and symbols. It shows the one-percenters holding most of it, or, as I prefer to call them in the Nae-Née series, the Farmers – banksters + hedge fundsters + corporatists – who treat the rest of us as a crop to do with as they please or to erase if we annoy them. These are the guys that Trump is picking for his Cabinet.

“Farmers” is a name that should catch on for describing the rule-ignoring, crop-reaping and weed-erasing attitude that they demonstrate.

I like creating names for monsters. It’s fun, and it saves a lot of time once they catch on.

I’ll explain how I chose “Pumpkingropenfuhrer” for Trump: Garry Trudeau of Doonesbury gets partial credit. He called Arnold Schwarzenegger the “Gropenfuhrer”. I’m not sure who came up with “Pumpkinfuhrer” for Trump, but Trump is both orange and a groper, so…you get the idea. Evil grin here. I must have my fun.

There have been wails of “he wouldn’t do that” about taking away the Affordable Care Act, about negating Roe v. Wade, about stopping Full Faith and Credit for gay and lesbian marriages, and more.

Bad news: he – and they in the mostly-GOP Congress, WOULD do that. They are a bunch of gleeful brats who can’t wait to do that.

They have no financial fears, no legal fears – no fears.

They now feel above the Constitution, and there are suggestions of using every loophole on the legal books and more, up to and including simply ignoring the law, in order to do whatever they want.

Conflicts of interest? So what. Just issue pardons.

Hate speech and fighting words? With hardly any liberals/Democrats in office, the most reprehensible, anti-social, bullying behavior is back.

Facts? Just ignore the ones that are inconvenient to business interests and spout off fake news.

We’ve seen the fascist playbook in action once.

We know how it all starts, and it’s starting now.

We know the misery and damage that it brings.

We also know what happens in the end to those who perpetrate it.

So revolt now.

Stare right back at them and promise them that, if they survive, politically or otherwise, for the full cycle of fascism, they won’t like the end of the story as it pertains to them.

Book 3 of the Nae-Née series doesn’t end well for the Farmers. It will be out soon. I doubt the Farmers will read it, but you can.

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Trump Has Kindly…or Perhaps Foolishly…Offered the Electors, and America, a Preview.

Donald J. Trump takes himself entirely too seriously.

He has demanded, in a reprise of the insanity and witch-hunting of the 1950s, that a questionnaire be filled out by the scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy. The questionnaire seeks to discover which scientific associations they are affiliated, where they have ever gotten grant money from, and more.

Here it is – all 6 pages of it:

The scientists have (in red) essentially told Trump’s transition team to go find all of the information it wants the hard way, by itself.

It won’t name any names.

Department of Energy Defies Trump, Won’t Name Climate Change Workers

Good – they know their 1st Amendment rights, and are insisting upon them.

But this is a disturbing preview of what is to come if the Electoral College fails to block a Trump presidency.

It’s not as if we haven’t seen this before. We know this drill thanks to the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC), as well as to the separate but concurrent insanity perpetrated by the witch-hunter Senator Joseph R. McCarthy. Both sought to root out communism, in flagrant disregard for the U.S. Constitution, and of their oaths to defend it.

Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, witch-hunter of anti-communism infamy. (Library of Congress photo)

The HUAC went after Hollywood’s creative minds: directors and screenwriters.

The Hollywood Ten in November 1947 waiting to be fingerprinted in the U.S. Marshal’s office after being cited for contempt of Congress. Front row (from left): Herbert Biberman, attorneys Martin Popper and Robert W. Kenny, Albert Maltz, Lester Cole. Middle row: Dalton Trumbo, John Howard Lawson, Alvah Bessie, Samuel Ornitz. Back row: Ring Lardner Jr., Edward Dmytryk, Adrian Scott. (Source: Authentic History Center)

They did not accept this ill treatment, complete with fingerprinting, without protest.

Members of the Hollywood Ten and their families in 1950, protesting the impending incarceration of the ten. (Copyright One Step Productions)

McCarthy went after nuclear physicists, among others.

He sought to bar certain scientists – those whose opinions didn’t jive with him own – from their fields.

J. Robert Oppenheimer being questioned by the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC). He chaired the predecessor of the U.S. Department of Energy. (Associated Press Photo)

Eventually, the nation’s journalists, led by the venerable Edward R. Murrow, managed to bring public attention to the willful failure to respect the fine line between legitimate investigation and blatant vilification by a self-appointed thought and opinion police.

Trump sees no value in court jesters.

He neither comprehends nor appreciates what they do, which is to hold up a mirror to those in our government.

Welcome to being a public citizen, Trump. You have to take it when you are mocked. It’s a form of criticism.

Any defense mechanism of a response to criticism simply shows weakness…and a penchant for fascism.

Alec Baldwin has a duty to keep it up, as do our other comics, writers, producers, and directors.

Alec Baldwin as himself, and doing his parody of Donald Trump on Saturday Night Live.

But back to the physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy.

Trump questionnaire recalls dark history of ideology-driven science

Seal of the U.S. Department of Energy.

They are doing their duty to science and to the people of the United States, whom they serve as government researchers.

J. Robert Oppenheimer, a nuclear physicist who is regarded as “the father of the atomic bomb”, and who worked on the Manhattan Project, did the same duty when he ran its predecessor, and lobbied for the creation of an international oversight committee for nuclear weapons.  He also held some communist opinions.

The witch-hunts and the thought police of the 1950s ended with, among other things, the realization that one’s opinions are not subject to government control. The novel Nineteen Eighty-Four is not an instruction manual for a real society, nor should it be.

Dr. Seuss explored the insanity of the nuclear bomb in The Butter-Battle Book. The only thing not dealt with by it was any resource war.

Oppenheimer would certainly have approved of that book.

Today, we see liberals being vilified for recognizing climate change, for wanting control over fertility, for a determination that those who are different – people of all races, ethnicities, cultures, religions, people whose sexuality does not simply lean toward the opposite sex, people who have any sort of disability – to be treated as equal members of society, neither ostracized nor terrorized but accepted fully rather than merely tolerated.

For that, liberals are being called “libtards”. Trump’s supports would have it get worse than that.

Joseph McCarthy went after communism in the Red Scare and homosexuality (with the assistance of his gay attorney, Roy Cohn, I might add) in the Lavender Scare.

Books, comedians, and other art forms are invaluable warnings of the monstrous paths that, if unchecked, can destroy a society and the rule of law.

Trump takes himself entirely too seriously.

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A Vote for a Nebulous, Undefined “Change” is a Refusal to Think.

For months leading up the 2016 election for the President of the United States, I heard people who wanted Trump to win saying, “It’s time for a change” and “We need a change”.

What I heard far too little of was specificity as to just what that change might be.

There was discontent expressed with Liberal ideology, which I had no use for.

To me, that translates as fascism and a wish for the return of societal conditions from a century ago, in which women had no controls on their fertility but were expected to sacrifice career aspirations and education ambitions to men and child care, and in which LGTB lived in a state of secret terror of being discovered, and in which people of any other race, ethnicity, and culture than Caucasian Protestant Christian were shunted aside.

No thank you.

A recent article highlighted a very careless voter who thought we needed a change, yet she had benefitted from Obamacare, also known as the Affordable Care Act.

She voted for Trump, telling herself with a tone of frantic anxiety that he couldn’t possibly – wouldn’t possibly – take the ACA away, because she needed it!

She was not entirely satisfied with the ACA, nor were other Trump voters who were interviewed.

Really?! What a shock, to read that the new law wasn’t flawless! (Sarcasm.)

A law such as the Affordable Care Act could not hope to be flawless, and did not.

Of course it needs to be tweaked.

The British began their National Health Service in 1948.

National Health Service

It was in 1919, however, that they began their effort at ensuring that every citizen could access health care with the Ministry of Health Act of 1919.

Ministry of Health Act 1919

It was a work in progress and it was recognized as such, as ours is, but it was started earlier, so it has had more time to be tweaked, improved upon, expanded, and otherwise become entrenched.

But back to this woman whose career, for the past 2 years since the ACA was enacted, has been signing people up for health insurance.

She has not been entirely happy, in part because Obamacare needs to be tweaked – a thing that Hillary Clinton had demonstrated an interest in since her days as First Lady of the United States – and in part because of her own economic situation as a working person.

So, to take some action on her dissatisfaction, she voted for Trump, and against her own interests.

Trump has sworn to get rid of the Affordable Care Act.

Yet she didn’t believe him.

She didn’t take him at his word.

She has plenty of company, judging from the chatter around me, on the Internet, and in other media. People have talked about what they were thinking.

The problem is a refusal to spend their spare time researching the issue further, and a refusal to believe a candidate who spoke quite plainly, clearly, and succinctly if not all that eloquently about his intentions.

I find it puzzling that anyone would allow their emotional, wishful thinking and anxiety ahead of an obvious negative outcome – one offered by the very candidate for whom they then voted.

But it happened.

Why Obamacare enrollees voted for Trump

“I thought we needed a change” is pure idiocy in vote-casting. What change in particular? Clearly, that was not thought of, and that is treating voting like a game rather than the serious endeavor that it is. It is flagrantly irresponsible. If one cannot see what that change might be, or has the slightest inkling that said change would not be in one’s interest, nor in the interest of one’s nation and society, one ought not to vote for some nebulous, undefined “change”.

Here’s another issue that far more people ought to focus on: our economic situation.

The Federal Reserve Board, which is made up of banksters who create money by conjuring it out of thin air into existence and loan it out for interest payments, are about to raise those interest rates. The result of this will not lead to the economic boom that Trump voters have been longing for and expecting as a result of his elevation to the presidency.

Anyone who would like to read about it can see the details here:

Why the Fed Is About to Raise Interest Rates

A Trump Economic Boom? The Fed May Stand in the Way

These analyses make no mention whatsoever of human overpopulation as a factor in the economy having topped out. Growth of virtual resources cannot continue indefinitely, because there are only so many finite resources, and there is so much living space that humans can and will agree to inhabit, in the Earth’s very real and finite bank account of natural resources and land.

But…growth, and the push for more, more, more is what creates cannon fodder for warmongers.

It also creates more, more, more consumers of resources: oil, plastics, and other consumer goods.

Trump is making his intentions to promote this clear in his Cabinet choices.

All are what I call Farmers in my books, particularly in the Nae-Née series.

To go over this again, a Farmer can be a bankster, a hedge fundster, or a corporatist.

They are big businesspeople who are out only for themselves, and the hell with the vast majority of the rest us, because we are alternately the crop and the weeds to them.

We are to be harvested as a crop when it benefits the Farmers, and erased as weeds when it doesn’t.

Anyone who is looking at their political choices must take a hard, cold look at the menu, because it goes both ways.

Who May Be an Elector and How May They Vote?

The Electoral College consists of 538 people, and only exists for the brief times that it must convene in each state, plus the District of Columbia, to elect a new President of the United States.

How do we understand how many Electors each state gets?

Add the number of Senators for each state (that’s 2 per state, no matter the size or total population), plus the number of Representatives in the House (which does vary by the number of voting districts in each state).

That’s a total of 535.

The District of Columbia can’t be left without a voice, so it gets 3 Electors.

That brings the total to 538.


I found a list of states with laws that attempt to constrain their Electors.

State Control of Electors

There is no federal law that requires electors to vote as they have pledged, but 29 states and the District of Columbia have legal control over how their electors vote in the Electoral College. This means their electors are bound by state law and/or by state or party pledge to cast their vote for the candidate that wins the statewide popular vote. At the same time, this also means that there are 21 states in the union that have no requirements of, or legal control over, their electors. Therefore, despite the outcome of a state’s popular vote, the state’s electors are ultimately free to vote in whatever manner they please, including an abstention, with no legal repercussions. The states with legal control over their electors are the following 29 and D.C.:

Alabama (Code of Ala. §17-19-2)
Alaska (Alaska Stat. §15.30.090)
California (Election Code §6906)
Colorado (CRS §1-4-304)
Connecticut (Conn. Gen. Stat. §9-176)
Delaware (15 Del C §4303)
District of Columbia (§1-1312(g))
Florida (Fla. Stat. §103.021(1))
Hawaii (HRS §14-28)
Maine (21-A MRS §805)
Maryland (Md Ann Code art 33, §8-505)
Massachusetts (MGL, ch. 53, §8)
Michigan (MCL §168.47)
Mississippi (Miss Code Ann §23-15-785)
Montana (MCA §13-25-104)
Nebraska (§32-714)
Nevada (NRS §298.050)
New Mexico (NM Stat Ann §1-15-9)
North Carolina (NC Gen Stat §163-212)
Ohio (ORC Ann §3505.40)
Oklahoma (26 Okl St §10-102)
Oregon (ORS §248.355)
South Carolina (SC Code Ann §7-19-80)
Tennessee (Tenn Code Ann §2-15-104(c))
Utah (Utah Code Ann §20A-13-304)
Vermont (17 VSA §2732)
Virginia (§24.2-203)
Washington (RCW §29.71.020)
Wisconsin (Wis Stat §7.75)
Wyoming (Wyo Stat §22-19-108)

Most of these state laws generally assert that an elector shall cast his or her vote for the candidates who won a majority of the state’s popular vote, or for the candidate of the party that nominated the elector.

Over the years, however, despite legal oversight, a number of electors have violated their state’s law binding them to their pledged vote. However, these violators often only face being charged with a misdemeanor or a small fine, usually $1,000. Many constitutional scholars agree that electors remain free agents despite state laws and that, if challenged, such laws would be ruled unconstitutional. Therefore, electors can decline to cast their vote for a specific candidate (the one that wins the popular vote of their state), either voting for an alternative candidate, or abstaining completely. In fact, in the 2000 election, Barbara Lett-Simmons, an elector for the District of Columbia, cast a blank ballot for president and vice president in protest of the District’s unfair voting rights. Indeed, when it comes down to it, electors are ultimately free to vote for whom they personally prefer, despite the general public’s desire.

To view this website, go to: http://archive.fairvote.org/?page=967


For the purpose of showing an example of a state’s laws on the Electoral College, complete in its boring boilerplate language, I have gathered Connecticut’s data.

Connecticut General Statutes

Connecticut’s laws on Electors may be found under Title 9: Elections.

Chapter 143 Secs. 9-12 to 9-67 Electors: Qualifications and Admission
Chapter 146 Secs. 9-164 to 9-237a Elections
Chapter 151 Secs. 9-349 to 9-368c Elections: Prohibited Acts and Penalties

U.S. citizens aged 18 and older, including blind persons, with no felony convictions or other legal bars to voting, may apply to be Electors with no fee required.

What follows here are statutes, with legislative history, on participating in the Electoral College.

However…if someone cannot participate at the last moment, for whatever reason, including, but not limited to be unable to physically go to the meeting place and cast a vote due to a snowstorm, another person may be recruited at said last moment.

A political party affiliation is not required.

If one has a political party affiliation, however, that Elector may NOT vote in the primary election.

Connecticut DOES attempt to bind each Elector’s vote – to whichever political party that Elector is registered as a member of.

Sec. 9-355, says that any person who neglects to do the duty of an Elector without reasonable cause (operative words there!) shall be deemed guilty of a Class E felony. Connecticut’s Criminal Code doesn’t include a Class E felony, so this may refer to federal law, but it doesn’t say so. The statute does get specific as to what said penalty would involve: a fine of not more than $2,000 and not more than 3 years prison time.

Without reasonable cause…I sense a legal fight in court over this.

An Elector, if charged with fraud for refusing to vote for the candidate of a particular political party, could make a federal case out of this.

Another strategy is to register to become an elector without registering as a member of a political party.

But…the form does require that the applicant disclose which candidate that applicant intends to cast an Electoral College vote for in the election.

Application form, pages 1 through 3, to be an Elector for the State of Connecticut in the 2016 Presidential Election.

Tricky…

Still, once cast, that’s it. There’s no taking it back.

And Elector could, effectively, go rogue, and that action will irrevocably affect the final result.

What follows here are as many of the relevant statutes as I could find to share, with the histories in purple, because that is how they appear online.

This just shows how much boilerplate, legislative history, and other minutia is involved in creating and enacting laws…about anything.

Only the U.S. Constitution is neater than this, and briefer…yet it still looks convoluted, even to a lawyer.

Sec. 9-12. Who may be admitted. (a) Each citizen of the United States who has attained the age of eighteen years, and who is a bona fide resident of the town to which the citizen applies for admission as an elector shall, on approval by the registrars of voters or town clerk of the town of residence of such citizen, as prescribed by law, be an elector, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section. For purposes of this section a person shall be deemed to have attained the age of eighteen years on the day of the person’s eighteenth birthday and a person shall be deemed to be a bona fide resident of the town to which the citizen applies for admission as an elector if such person’s dwelling unit is located within the geographic boundaries of such town. No mentally incompetent person shall be admitted as an elector.

(b) Any citizen who will have attained the age of eighteen years on or before the day of a regular election may apply for admission as an elector. If such citizen is found to be qualified the citizen shall become an elector on the day of the citizen’s eighteenth birthday. The registrars shall add the name of any person applying under this subsection, if found qualified, to the registry list and, if applicable, to the enrollment list, together with the effective date of his registration. The registrars may place the name of each such person at the end of the registry and enrollment lists for the voting district.

(1949 Rev., S. 991; 1953, S. 513d; 1963, P.A. 645, S. 1; February, 1965, P.A. 407, S. 1; 1972, P.A. 127, S. 10; P.A. 73-630, S. 1, 19; P.A. 75-210; 75-565, S. 2, 5; P.A. 77-244, S. 1, 4; P.A. 81-350, S. 4, 17; P.A. 87-382, S. 2, 55; P.A. 94-121, S. 9, 33; P.A. 95-171, S. 2, 14; P.A. 97-67, S. 5, 9; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 103; P.A. 07-194, S. 41.)

History: 1963 act deleted provision prohibiting imposition of new qualifications on present electors; 1965 act removed requirement of at least a year’s residency in the state; 1972 act changed the qualifying age from 21 to 18; P.A. 73-630 removed town residency requirement of six months and substituted therefor “is a bona fide resident of the town” and removed the reading and character requirements; P.A. 75-210 substituted “mentally incompetent” for “idiot or mentally ill”; P.A. 75-565, effective January 1, 1976, added exception re Secs. 9-19e and 9-30; P.A. 77-244 added “and subsection (b) of this section” to the exceptions in P.A. 77-565, designated the previously enacted statute and amendments as Subsec. (a) and added new Subsec. (b) providing for qualifying and applying for admission as electors within the four-month period prior to an election of those attaining age 18 on or before the day of a regular election; P.A. 81-350 extended period for preregistration of 17-year-olds from four to six months prior to eighteenth birthday and provided that a person is deemed to be 18 on the day of his eighteenth birthday; P.A. 87-382 substituted “one hundred eighty days” for “six months” in Subsec. (b); P.A. 94-121 amended first sentence of Subsec. (a) by substituting “approval by the registrars of voters or town clerk of the town of residence of such citizen, as” for “taking the oath” and deleting references to Secs. 9-19e and 9-30 in the exception clause of the same sentence, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 95-171 amended Subsec. (b) by deleting provision limiting applicability by 17-year-old citizens to a period of 180 days prior to election, effective October 1, 1995, and applicable to elections held on or after that date; P.A. 97-67 amended Subsec. (b) by adding provision re placement of names at end of registry and enrollment lists, effective July 1, 1997; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality in Subsecs. (a) and (b), and amended Subsec. (b) by substituting “will have attained the age of eighteen years on or before the day of a regular election” for “has attained the age of seventeen years”, effective January 1, 2004; P.A. 07-194 added provision in Subsec. (a) re person deemed to be a bona fide resident of town.

Cited. 31 CS 454.

Sec. 9-12b. Admission of electors not prohibited on Sundays. The provisions of section 53-302a shall not apply to activities conducted for the purpose of admitting electors.

(P.A. 76-128, S. 1, 11; P.A. 79-363, S. 3, 38.)

History: P.A. 79-363 substituted “sections 53-302a” for “sections 53-300 and 53-302”.

Sec. 9-13. Blind persons. No applicant, otherwise qualified to be an elector in this state, shall be ineligible by reason of blindness or defective sight.

(1949 Rev., S. 992; 1953, S. 514d; P.A. 76-128, S. 3, 11.)

History: P.A. 76-128 deleted requirements for reading or submission of proof of previous admission as elector in any Connecticut town.

Sec. 9-14. Electors residing in state institutions. No person shall be deemed to have lost his residence in any town by reason of his absence therefrom in any institution maintained by the state. No person who resides in any institution maintained by the state shall be admitted as an elector in the town in which such institution is located, unless he proves to the satisfaction of the admitting official that he is a bona fide resident of such institution.

(1949 Rev., S. 1000; 1953, S. 515d; P.A. 82-247, S. 1.)

History: P.A. 82-247 changed “board for admission of electors” to “admitting official” and “permanent” resident to “bona fide” resident.

Sec. 9-14a. Electors in custody of state. Any person in the custody of the state being held at a community correctional center or a correctional institution, whose voting rights have not been denied, shall be deemed to be absent from the town or city of which he is an inhabitant for purposes of voting, notwithstanding that such center or institution may be situated within such town or city.

(P.A. 75-595, S. 4, 5.)

See Secs. 9-135, 9-137 re absentee voting.

Sec. 9-15a. Membership and quorum of board for admission of electors. (a) The board for admission of electors in each town shall consist of the town clerk and the selectmen, provided the legislative body of any town may, at any time, except during the period of eight weeks prior to a regular election, vote to change the membership of such board to consist of (1) the town clerk, the selectmen and the registrars of voters or (2) the town clerk and the registrars of voters. For the purposes of this section, the term “registrars of voters”, in a town where there are different registrars of voters for different voting districts, means the registrars of voters in the voting district in which, at the last-preceding election, the presiding officer for the purpose of declaring the result of the vote of the whole town was the moderator.

(b) Any member of the board for the admission of electors in any town who finds that he is unable to attend a meeting of the board shall designate another elected officer of such town to act for him by filing a statement of such designation in writing in the office of the town clerk at any time prior to the opening of the meeting, provided, if an assistant town clerk is available, he shall serve in the absence or inability of the town clerk and, if the deputy registrar of voters is available, he shall serve in the absence or inability of his registrar.

(c) A quorum of the board for the admission of electors shall consist of a bare majority of the members of such board. An assistant town clerk or a deputy registrar or any other town officer designated by, and acting for, a member of such board pursuant to the provisions of subsection (b) of this section shall be included as a member of such board for purposes of ascertaining the existence of a quorum.

(d) This section shall supersede any inconsistent provision of any charter or special act.

(February, 1965, P.A. 471; 1969, P.A. 496; P.A. 79-363, S. 4, 38; P.A. 83-391, S. 1, 24; P.A. 07-217, S. 39.)

History: 1969 act changed word “municipality” for “town” wherever appearing and in Subsec. (b) inserted the word “elected” before “officer”; P.A. 79-363 amended Subsec. (a) by inserting “the” before “moderator”; P.A. 83-391 amended Subsec. (b) to eliminate reference to sessions of board for the admission of electors; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective July 12, 2007.

Sec. 9-16. Notice of sessions of registrars of voters. The registrars of voters in each town shall give notice of the time and place of each session for the admission of electors held pursuant to section 9-17 by publication in a newspaper published or circulated in such town not more than fifteen nor less than five days before each such session. Nothing herein shall require that such publication be in the form of a legal advertisement.

(1953, S. 517d; 1957, P.A. 441, S. 3; 1959, P.A. 684, S. 2; 1961, P.A. 266, S. 1; 1963, P.A. 393, S. 3; February, 1965, P.A. 275, S. 2; 443, S. 1; 1967, P.A. 352, S. 3; P.A. 83-391, S. 2, 24; P.A. 93-230, S. 5.)

History: 1959 act allowed town clerk’s statement that applicant is an elector in lieu of proof of citizenship; 1961 act added registrar of voters to same provision; 1963 act deleted requirement of posting notice of session on signpost and changed time for giving notice by publication; 1965 acts required notice be published no more than 10 nor less than 5 days before each session and deleted provision for notice to include requirements for presentation of naturalization or other papers; 1967 act amended notice requirement to no more than 15 days instead of 10 days prior to session; P.A. 83-391 amended section to provide for notice of sessions to be given by registrars of voters not board for admission of electors; P.A. 93-230 specified that publication need not be in form of a legal advertisement.

See Sec. 9-25 re admission of armed forces members as electors.

See Sec. 9-31a re special admission procedure for permanently physically disabled persons.

Sec. 9-17. Sessions of registrars of voters. (a) For the purposes of this section, “primary day” means the day that a primary for state, district and municipal offices is being held in accordance with section 9-423, and “election day” means the day of each regular election. (1) The registrars of voters of each town shall hold sessions to examine the qualifications of electors and admit those found qualified on the dates and at the times set forth in this section. Such sessions shall be held on the following days during the hours indicated, except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subsection:

Day Hours
Fourteenth day
before primary day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . any two hours between
5:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m.
Saturday of third week
before election day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.
Seventh day
before election day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.

The session of the registrars of voters on the seventh day before election day shall be the last regular session for the admission of electors prior to an election, as defined in subsection (y) of section 9-1. (2) No town having a population of less than twenty-five thousand persons shall be required to hold sessions for admission of electors on the fourteenth day before primary day.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) of this section, the registrars of voters shall hold a limited session on the last week day before each regular election from nine o’clock a.m. to five o’clock p.m. for the purpose of admitting only those persons whose qualifications as to age, citizenship or residence in the municipality were attained after the last session for the admission of electors prior to an election. The registrars shall enter the names of those electors admitted at such limited session on the proper list, with their residences by street and numbers.

(c) In addition to the sessions held pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this section, the registrars of voters in each town shall hold one session each year, between the first of January and the last day of the school year, at each public high school in such town, for the admission of persons who are eligible for admission under subsection (a) or (b) of section 9-12, provided, in the case of a public high school in a regional school district, such session shall be held on a rotating basis by the registrars of voters for each town which is a member of the regional school district. The registrars of voters need not give notice of this session by publication in a newspaper.

(1949 Rev., S. 1015; 1953, 1955, S. 518d; 1957, P.A. 441, S. 4; 1963, P.A. 530, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 694, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 708; 768, S. 2; 1972, P.A. 144; P.A. 73-630, S. 2, 19; P.A. 75-12, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-330, S. 1; 77-604, S. 83, 84; P.A. 79-189, S. 2, 9; P.A. 83-391, S. 3, 24; P.A. 84-319, S. 5, 49; 84-546, S. 18, 173; P.A. 87-210; P.A. 89-297, S. 1; P.A. 91-351, S. 21, 23, 28; P.A. 93-230, S. 1; P.A. 94-121, S. 10, 33; 94-203, S. 1, 12; P.A. 95-171, S. 3, 14; P.A. 96-134, S. 1, 9; P.A. 97-67, S. 6, 9; P.A. 98-67, S. 4, 10; P.A. 05-235, S. 27; P.A. 07-217, S. 40; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1, S. 36.)

History: 1963 act reduced duration of session in sixth week before election from 11 to “at least four” hours, and deleted variations in length of session according to the towns’ sizes; 1969 act deleted provisions for towns holding a municipal election on the first Monday in October in the even-numbered years; 1971 acts added a session “on the first Saturday after Labor Day”, added clarifying language to the provision of adjournment of session on the Saturday of the sixth week, deleted reference to the third week as the case may be and added a provision for additional sessions if the Saturday of the sixth or fourth week before election falls on day on which tenets of religion forbid secular activity; 1972 act added provision for two evening sessions between the Saturdays of the sixth and fourth weeks before election; P.A. 73-630 substituted clarifying language for “rights have matured” as age citizenship or residence attained after the Saturday of the fourth week before the election; P.A. 75-12 provided for additional session on Saturday of fifth week before election and for adjournment of that session from time to time instead of provision for adjournment of the session on sixth Saturday, further provided for one evening session rather than two between the Saturday of fifth week (instead of sixth) and the Saturday of the fourth week and further substituted fifth week for sixth week in the requirement for additional session where that Saturday falls on a day on which religious tenets forbid secular activity; P.A. 77-330 provided for evening session before primary, changed provisions for hours of sessions before elections to “from at least nine o’clock a.m. to one o’clock p.m.”, specified that the evening session between the fifth and fourth week be on Wednesday, provided for a session on the twenty-first day before election between the hours of nine a.m. and eight p.m., changed the hours for the session on the last weekday before election to “from at least nine a.m. to eleven a.m.”, changed the purpose of that admitting session to “those persons whose qualifications as to age or citizenship were attained after the twenty-first day before the election”, changed provision for extra session where religious tenet forbids secular activity on Saturday of fifth or fourth week to twenty-first day and provided that admission of electors on the last weekday before election would be determined from that next succeeding day; P.A. 77-604 made technical changes; P.A. 79-189 divided statute into three Subsecs. with Subsec. (a) including information set forth in schedule format; P.A. 83-391 amended section to delete references to board for admission of electors and eliminated certain mandatory sessions in towns having a population under twenty-five thousand; P.A. 84-319 and P.A. 84-546 made technical amendment to Subsec. (b), restoring language inadvertently omitted from 1983 revision; P.A. 87-210 added Subsec. (c) re sessions at public high schools; P.A. 89-297 changed May ninth to May twelfth in Subsec. (c); P.A. 91-351 amended Subsec. (a) to move all sessions one week closer to election day and changed ending time for last Saturday session before election day from 8:00 to 5:00 p.m; P.A. 93-230 amended Subsec. (a) to repeal requirement that session be held on Saturday of fifth week before election day and to change hours for session to be held on the Wednesday falling between fourth and third Saturdays before election day, from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. to “any two hours between 5:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m.”; P.A. 94-121 deleted reference to elector’s oath in Subsec. (a)(1), effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 94-203 amended Subsec. (a) by changing hours of session on fourteenth day before primary day, from “7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m.” to “any two hours between 5:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m.”, effective July 1, 1994; P.A. 95-171 amended Subsec. (b) by extending session from eleven o’clock a.m. to noon and requiring names be entered by one o’clock p.m. rather than noon, effective October 1, 1995, and applicable to elections held on or after that date; P.A. 96-134 amended Subsec. (a) to delete references to mandatory sessions on the Saturday of fourth week before election day and the Wednesday between fourth and third Saturdays before election day and to change session hours for Saturday of third week before election day and amended Subsec. (c) to replace “May twelfth” with “the first of January” and add provision that the registrars of voters need not give notice of session by publication, effective May 29, 1996; P.A. 97-67 amended Subsec. (a) by changing hours of Saturday session from “9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.” to “10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.”, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 98-67 amended Subsec. (a) to change definition of “primary day” from day scheduled for primary to day that primary is being held, effective July 1, 1998; P.A. 05-235 amended Subsec. (a) by changing “fourteenth day before election day” to “seventh day before election day”, effective January 1, 2006; P.A. 07-217 made a technical change in Subsec. (b), effective July 12, 2007; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 10-1 amended Subsec. (b) by extending end time of limited session from 12 o’clock noon to 5 o’clock p.m. and by eliminating deadline re entering of names of electors, effective June 22, 2010.

Board being, under the constitution, quasi-judicial, its members acting in good faith are not liable in damages; 53 C. 527; having to act under discretion, are not subject to mandamus. 34 C. 415.

Sec. 9-17a. “Admitting official” defined. As used in sections 9-17, 9-19b, 9-19c(a), 9-20, 9-23a, 9-24, 9-31a, 9-31b and 9-31l, unless otherwise provided, the term “admitting official” means a town clerk, assistant town clerk, registrar of voters, deputy registrar of voters, assistant registrar of voters, special assistant registrar of voters or the board for admission of electors.

(1971, P.A. 768, S. 1; P.A. 79-363, S. 5, 38; P.A. 80-281, S. 2, 31; P.A. 81-350, S. 12, 17.)

History: P.A. 79-363 made technical changes; P.A. 80-281 added “special assistant registrar of voters”; P.A. 81-350 substituted reference to Sec. 9-31l for reference to Sec. 9-31k, repealed by the same act.

Sec. 9-19a. Inconsistent provisions superseded. The provisions of this chapter shall supersede any inconsistent provision of any charter or special act.

(1963, P.A. 530, S. 5; P.A. 79-363, S. 6, 38; P.A. 83-391, S. 4, 24; P.A. 84-319, S. 6, 49.)

History: P.A. 79-363 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 9-18a; P.A. 83-391 deleted reference to repealed Sec. 9-19; P.A. 84-319 amended section to provide that provisions of chapter 143, rather than of Sec. 9-17, supersede inconsistent provisions in charters and special acts.

Sec. 9-19b. Applications for admission submitted to town clerk or registrar of voters. Locations for admission of electors. (a) Except during the period between the last session for the admission of electors prior to an election and the day following that election, the town clerk or assistant town clerk, during office hours and at the office of such official, may examine the qualifications of any person applying in person to be admitted as an elector and approve such application.

(b) Except during the period between the last session for the admission of electors prior to an election and the day following that election, either registrar of voters, or a deputy registrar, assistant registrar or special assistant registrar appointed in accordance with the provisions of section 9-192, may examine the qualifications of any person applying to be admitted as an elector in the town and, except for applications submitted pursuant to subdivision (4) of this subsection, approve such application submitted in person (1) at the office of such official; (2) at any enrollment session of the registrars of voters; (3) at any public place; (4) at any time and at any place in the town, other than a public place; or (5) at any public office of the Department of Motor Vehicles, Labor Department or Department of Social Services which is located in the town in which the registrar, deputy registrar, assistant registrar or special assistant registrar serves, if written notice of the date and time is given seven days in advance thereof to the commissioner of such department. Upon receipt of a written notice under subdivision (5) of this subsection, the commissioner of the department may designate a portion of the public office which shall be used for the admission of electors. The other registrar, or any deputy, assistant or special assistant registrar, shall be permitted to be present during the admission of any person pursuant to subdivisions (4) and (5) of this subsection. Applications accepted and examined prior to the last session for admission of electors prior to an election pursuant to subdivision (4) of this subsection may be approved after such last session. The admission of any person pursuant to subdivision (4) shall be effective on the date when both registrars approve such application. The registrar who receives such application from the applicant shall give written notice to the other registrar within one business day after such receipt and the registrars shall forthwith act on such applications. No rejection of any application under subdivision (4) of this subsection shall be effective until the registrar has mailed to the other registrar and the applicant a notice stating the reasons for the rejection. Any applicant whose application is rejected may appeal under the provisions of section 9-31l.

(c) Such registrar, deputy, assistant or special assistant registrar accepting applications in accordance with subdivision (4) of subsection (b) of this section shall provide the applicant with a receipt. Upon approval or disapproval of the application, the registrars shall send a notice thereof by first-class mail with instructions on the envelope that it be returned if not deliverable at the address shown thereon. If such notice of approval is returned undeliverable, the registrars shall take the necessary action in accordance with section 9-35 or 9-43.

(d) During the period between the last session for the admission of electors prior to an election and the opening of the limited session for the admission of electors held on the last weekday before such election under section 9-17, the town clerk or assistant town clerk during office hours and at the office of such official and either registrar of voters or a deputy or assistant registrar at the office of such official may examine the qualifications of any person applying in person to be admitted in such town and approve the application of such person whose qualifications as to age, citizenship or residence in the municipality were attained after such last session and on or before the last weekday prior to such election.

(1967, P.A. 559, S. 1; 1969, P.A. 491; 677; 1971, P.A. 768, S. 4; P.A. 73-130; 73-430; 73-630, S. 3, 19; P.A. 75-28, S. 1, 2; P.A. 77-330, S. 2; 77-604, S. 83, 84; P.A. 79-143, S. 1; 79-189, S. 3, 9; P.A. 80-281, S. 3, 31; P.A. 81-350, S. 5, 17; P.A. 82-472, S. 24, 183; P.A. 88-347, S. 2, 4; P.A. 89-297, S. 2, 18; P.A. 93-262, S. 1, 87; P.A. 94-121, S. 11, 33.)

History: 1969 acts added provision for town clerk and registrars of voters, during the period between the last regular session and the opening of the limited session held on the last weekday before election, to process applications of persons who attained qualifications as to age, residence or citizenship during that period and added provision for enrollment at any public place where 5 days prior notice in newspaper published; 1971 act added assistant town clerk and a deputy or assistant registrar where appropriate, substituted “any of such admitting officials” for “the town clerk or either registrar of voters”, deleted “accept the application for admission as an elector of” and deleted provisions requiring approval of application by the board for admission of electors and notification where the board’s action is unfavorable; P.A. 73-130 added “with the consent of both registrars of voters” to the provision for enrollment at any public place; P.A. 73-430 defined “during office hours” where the registrars of voters do not maintain regular office hours; P.A. 73-630 deleted “residence” as qualification, attainment of which during period between last regular session and on or before the last weekday prior to election makes person eligible for special enrollment and substituted “were attained” for “matured” in context of when qualifications for enrollment arose; P.A. 75-28 clarified “office hours” and changed provisions concerning enrollment at any public place to remove requirement for consent of both registrars so that either registrar may conduct enrollment upon 7 days prior notice to other registrar and the 5-day prior notice by newspaper, such notice to be signed by each registrar, deputy, or assistant who intends to participate; P.A. 77-330 where appearing deleted the word “regular” from “last regular session”; P.A. 77-604 made technical changes; P.A. 79-143 divided the section into Subsecs. (a) to (d), inclusive, additionally provided for enrollment at other than a public place, for admission to be effective on occurrence of certain conditions or for rejection of application, for provision of receipt to applicant upon administration of oath, for notice of action taken on application, for application for reexamination where application has been rejected and deleted references to newspaper notice; P.A. 79-189 added “residency in the municipality” to qualifications as to age or citizenship to be attained during the period between the last session and the opening of the limited session held on the last weekday before election in order for person to be registered during that time; P.A. 80-281 made technical changes; P.A. 81-350 required notice of location and opportunity to be present be given to registrar of other party by registrar conducting door-to-door registration and allowed rejected applicants to appeal under Sec. 9-31l, replacing provision allowing them to apply for reexamination under Sec. 9-31j; P.A. 82-472 added the reference to Sec. 9-43 in Subsec. (c); P.A. 88-347 added Subsec. (b)(5) re examination of qualifications of applicants for admission at offices of motor vehicles, labor and income maintenance departments, effective April 1, 1989; P.A. 89-297 amended Subsec. (b) by providing that the admission of any person pursuant to Subdiv. (4), instead of pursuant to “this subdivision”, shall be effective one week after receipt of application, except as otherwise provided; P.A. 93-262 authorized substitution of commissioner and department of social services for commissioner and department of income maintenance, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 94-121 applied provisions of Subsec. (a) to any person applying “in person” and substituted “approve such application” for “administer the elector’s oath” in Subsec. (a), amended Subsec. (b) by substituting “in the town and, except for applications submitted pursuant to subdivision (4) of this subsection, approve such application submitted in person” for “and administer the elector’s oath”, deleting requirement of advance notice to other registrar in Subdivs. (3), (4) and (5), and amending Subdiv. (4) to require place to be “in the town”, allow approval of applications received prior to last session for admission of electors to occur after such last session, make application effective only on date when both registrars approve it and require registrars to act forthwith on such applications, amended Subsec. (c) by substituting “accepting applications” for “administering the elector’s oath”, and applied provisions of Subsec. (d) to any person applying “in person” and “in such town” and substituted “approve the application” for “administer the elector’s oath”, effective January 1, 1995; (Revisor’s note: In 1997 a reference in Subsec. (b) to “Department of Labor” was replaced editorially by the Revisors with “Labor Department” for consistency with customary statutory usage).

Sec. 9-19c. Application for admission at place of employment, residence or study. (a) Upon the presentation to the town clerk or either registrar of voters of any town of the signed application of twenty-five or more persons who are employed by the same employer at the same place of employment in such town, or twenty-five or more persons who attend the same school, college or university which is located in such town, or who reside at the same hospital, residential care home, rest home, nursing home or convalescent home located in such town and who believe that they possess the qualifications for admission as electors, which application may be made at any time except during the period between seven days before the last session for the admission of electors prior to an election and the day following such election, and shall be in form substantially as provided in section 9-19d; an admitting official, within the time hereinafter specified, shall go to such place of employment, school, college, or university or hospital, residential care home, rest home, nursing home or convalescent home for the purpose of taking and acting upon applications for admission as electors of any persons who reside in any Connecticut town and who are authorized to be on the premises. No application need be accepted by such town clerk or registrars from persons working at any such place of employment, attending any such school, college or university or residing at any such hospital, residential care home, rest home, nursing home or convalescent home if a session for the admission of electors has been held on such premises within one hundred twenty days prior to the making of such petition. Such official to whom such application is presented shall, within seven days after the receipt of such application, inform each registrar of voters and the employer, or chief administrative officer of the school, college or university or hospital, residential care home, rest home, nursing home or convalescent home of the date and time at which he will go to such place for such purpose, which date shall be not less than seven days nor more than ten days after the sending of the notice by such official to such employer or chief administrative officer, except that no session shall be held after the last session for admission of electors prior to an election. The official with whom the application is filed may request any other admitting official to go in his stead.

(b) Such employer, or chief administrative officer, upon receipt of such notice, shall provide a suitable place for the taking of applications for admission as electors and shall forthwith cause a prominent notice to be posted on the bulletin board or other place where general notices to employees, students or residents are customarily posted, which notice shall specify the date, place and hour at which such official will receive such applications, and such notice shall remain posted through the day of such taking of applications. Procedures under this section shall conform as nearly as may be to the procedures for applications for admission submitted pursuant to sections 9-19b, 9-19e, 9-20 and 9-23a. No employer shall penalize or refuse to pay an employee who proceeds under this section and section 9-19d, and any employee proceeding under said sections shall be entitled to be paid at his regular rate for up to one-half hour for the purpose of making application to become an elector.

(1969, P.A. 412, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 768, S. 5; P.A. 75-17, S. 1; 75-565, S. 3, 5; P.A. 76-128, S. 4, 11; P.A. 77-330, S. 3; 77-604, S. 83, 84; P.A. 79-363, S. 7, 38; P.A. 87-382, S. 3, 55; P.A. 97-112, S. 2.)

History: 1971 act in Subsec. (a) changed enumeration of town clerk, assistant, either registrar of voters or their deputies to “an admitting official”, deleted reference to “all members of the board for admission as electors”, deleted reference to enumerated officials to go to the place of employment and provided that the officer with whom application is filed may request any other admitting official to go in his stead; P.A. 75-17 in Subsec. (a) to signed request of twenty-five added attendance at same school, college or university, residence at same hospital, home for aged, rest home, nursing home, convalescent home all of which located in same town where admission as elector desired, also these terms added to other appropriate references, changed the period during which a request may not be made from 60 to 45 days prior to a regular election, changed limiting date of notice from no more than 14 to 10 days and in Subsec. (b) added “or chief administrative officer” following “employer” and “students or residents” following “employee”; P.A. 75-565 in Subsec. (a) provided for taking and acting upon applications of employees, students or residents whether residents of that or any other Connecticut town, effective January 1, 1976; P.A. 76-128 removed language restricting the request signed by twenty-five to residents of such town and also restriction for admission only in that same town, changed the time during which request may not be made to the period between the last regular session and the day following the election, changed limitation to applications of employees, students or residents to any persons authorized to be on the premises and residing in any Connecticut town and provided that requests need not be accepted where session has been held on premises within four months prior to making of the petition; P.A. 77-330 changed period during which request may not be made to between 7 days before the last session and the day following the election and added exception that no session shall be held after the last session; P.A. 77-604 made technical changes; P.A. 79-363 changed “request” to “application” throughout Subsec. (a), in Subsec. (b) where word “applications” first appears “for admission as electors” was added and where “applications” next appears “for admission as electors” was deleted; P.A. 87-382 substituted “one hundred twenty days” for “four months” in Subsec. (a); P.A. 97-112 replaced “home for the aged” with “residential care home”.

Sec. 9-19d. Form of application. The application provided for in section 9-19c shall be in form substantially as follows:

To …. (name), Town Clerk, of the Town of
Registrar of Voters, …., Connecticut,

We the undersigned, being citizens of the United States of voting age, are

[ ] employed, and all being employees of …. (name of employer)

or

[ ] students attending …. (name of school, college or university)

or

[ ] residing at the (name of hospital, residential care home, rest home, nursing home or convalescent home) …. in said town and each of us believing that he or she possesses the qualifications for admission as an elector, do hereby request you to come to our place of employment, or school, college or university or residence, as the case may be, at …. (address), in said town, for the purpose of receiving applications for admission as an elector.

…. (signatures) …. (addresses)

Dated at …., Connecticut, this …. day of …., 20…

(1969, P.A. 412, S. 2; P.A. 73-630, S. 4, 19; P.A. 75-17, S. 2; P.A. 76-128, S. 5, 11; P.A. 97-112, S. 2.)

Sec. 9-19j. Election day registration; confirmation procedures; counting of ballots. Activities prohibited near location of election day registration. (a) As used in this subsection and subsections (b) to (i), inclusive, of this section, “election day” means the day on which a regular election, as defined in section 9-1, is held.

(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of this chapter, a person who (1) is (A) not an elector, or (B) an elector registered in a municipality who wishes to change his or her registration to another municipality pursuant to the provisions of subdivision (2) of subsection (e) of this section, and (2) meets the eligibility requirements under subsection (a) of section 9-12, may apply for admission as an elector on election day pursuant to the provisions of subsections (a) to (i), inclusive, of this section.

(c) (1) The registrars of voters shall designate a location for the completion and processing of election day registration applications on election day, provided the registrars of voters have access to the state-wide centralized voter registration system from such location.

(2) The registrars of voters may appoint one or more election officials to serve at such location and may delegate to such election officials any of the responsibilities assigned to the registrars of voters. The registrars of voters shall supervise such election officials and train such election officials to be election day registration election officials.

(d) Any person applying to register on election day under the provisions of subsections (a) to (i), inclusive, of this section shall make application in accordance with the provisions of section 9-20, provided (1) on election day, the applicant shall appear in person at the location designated by the registrars of voters for election day registration, (2) an applicant who is a student enrolled at an institution of higher education may submit a current photo identification card issued by said institution in lieu of the identification required by section 9-20, and (3) the applicant shall declare under oath that the applicant has not previously voted in the election. If the information that the applicant is required to provide under section 9-20 and subsections (a) to (i), inclusive, of this section does not include proof of the applicant’s residential address, the applicant shall also submit identification that shows the applicant’s bona fide residence address, including, but not limited to, a learner’s permit issued under section 14-36 or a utility bill that has the applicant’s name and current address and that has a due date that is not later than thirty days after the election or, in the case of a student enrolled at an institution of higher education, a registration or fee statement from such institution that has the applicant’s name and current address.

(e) If the registrars of voters determine that an applicant satisfies the application requirements set forth in subsection (d) of this section, the registrars of voters shall check the state-wide centralized voter registration system before admitting such applicant as an elector.

(1) If the registrars of voters determine that the applicant is not already an elector, the registrars of voters shall admit the applicant as an elector and the privileges of an elector shall attach immediately.

(2) If the registrars of voters determine that such applicant is an elector in another municipality and such applicant states that he or she wants to change the municipality in which the applicant is an elector, notwithstanding the provisions of section 9-21, the registrars of voters of the municipality in which such elector now seeks to register shall immediately notify the registrars of voters in such other municipality that such elector is changing the municipality in which the applicant is an elector. The registrars of voters in such other municipality shall notify the election officials in such municipality to remove such elector from the official voter list of such municipality. Such election officials shall cross through the elector’s name on such official voter list and mark “off” next to such elector’s name on such official voter list.

(A) If it is reported that such applicant already voted in such other municipality, the registrars of voters of such other municipality shall immediately notify the registrars of voters of the municipality in which such elector now seeks to register. In such event, such elector shall not receive an election day registration ballot from the registrars of voters of the municipality in which such elector now seeks to register. For any such elector, the election day registration process shall cease in the municipality in which such elector now seeks to register and such matter shall be reviewed by the registrars of voters in the municipality in which such elector now seeks to register. After completion of such review, if a resolution of the matter can not be made, such matter shall be reported to the State Elections Enforcement Commission which shall conduct an investigation of the matter.

(B) If there is no such report that such applicant already voted in the other municipality, the registrars of voters of the municipality in which the applicant seeks to register shall admit the applicant as an elector and the privileges of an elector shall attach immediately.

(f) If the applicant is admitted as an elector, the registrars of voters shall provide the elector with an election day registration ballot and election day registration envelope and shall make a record of such issuance. The elector shall complete an affirmation imprinted upon the back of the envelope for an election day registration ballot and shall declare under oath that the applicant has not previously voted in the election. The affirmation shall be in the form substantially as follows and signed by the voter:

AFFIRMATION: I, the undersigned, do hereby state, under penalty of false statement, (perjury) that:

  1. I am the person admitted here as an elector in the town indicated.
  2. I am eligible to vote in the election indicated for today in the town indicated.
  3. The information on my voter registration card is correct and complete.
  4. I reside at the address that I have given to the registrars of voters.
  5. If previously registered at another location, I have provided such address to the registrars of voters and hereby request cancellation of such prior registration.
  6. I have not voted in person or by absentee ballot and I will not vote otherwise than by this ballot at this election.
  7. I completed an application for an election day registration ballot and received an election day registration ballot.

…. (Signature of voter)

(g) The elector shall forthwith mark the election day registration ballot in the presence of the registrars of voters in such a manner that the registrars of voters shall not know how the election day registration ballot is marked. The elector shall place the election day registration ballot in the election day registration ballot envelope provided, and deposit such envelope in a secured election day registration ballot depository receptacle. At the time designated by the registrars of voters and noticed to election officials, the registrars of voters shall transport such receptacle containing the election day registration ballots to the area, either district or central, where absentee ballots are counted and such election day registration ballots shall be counted by the election officials present at such location. A section of the head moderator’s return shall show the number of election day registration ballots received from electors. The registrars of voters shall seal a copy of the vote tally for election day registration ballots in a depository envelope with the election day registration ballots and store such election day registration depository envelope with the other election results materials. The election day registration depository envelope shall be preserved by the registrars of voters for the period of time required to preserve counted ballots for elections.

(h) The provisions of the general statutes and regulations concerning procedures relating to the custody, control and counting of absentee ballots shall apply as nearly as possible, to the custody, control and counting of election day registration ballots under subsections (a) to (i), inclusive, of this section.

(i) After the acceptance of an election day registration, the registrars of voters shall forthwith send a registration confirmation notice to the residential address of each applicant who is admitted as an elector on election day under subsections (a) to (i), inclusive, of this section. Such confirmation shall be sent by first class mail with instructions on the envelope that it be returned if not deliverable at the address shown on the envelope. If a confirmation notice is returned undelivered, the registrars shall forthwith take the necessary action in accordance with section 9-35 or 9-43, as applicable, notwithstanding the May first deadline in section 9-35.

(j) No person shall solicit in behalf of or in opposition to the candidacy of another or himself or herself or in behalf of or in opposition to any question being submitted at the election, or loiter or peddle or offer any advertising matter, ballot or circular to another person within a radius of seventy-five feet of any outside entrance in use as an entry to the registrars’ of voters designated location for election day registration balloting or in any corridor, passageway or other approach leading from any such outside entrance to such registrars’ of voters designated location or in any room opening upon any such corridor, passageway or approach.

(P.A. 12-56, S. 1, 2.)

History: P.A. 12-56 effective July 1, 2013.

Sec. 9-23a. When person admitted as an elector permitted to vote in primary. Exception. (a) Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, no person admitted as an elector after twelve o’clock noon on the last business day before a primary shall be permitted to vote in such primary.

(b) An applicant for admission or enrollment under section 9-26 shall be entitled to vote in a primary if he files his application for admission or enrollment with the town clerk before the day of the primary and is otherwise eligible to vote in the primary.

(1967, P.A. 559, S. 3; 1969, P.A. 678; 1971, P.A. 768, S. 9; P.A. 75-47, S. 2, 5; 75-269, S. 1; P.A. 76-128, S. 7, 11; P.A. 77-298, S. 13; P.A. 78-153, S. 4, 32; P.A. 79-357, S. 3; 79-363, S. 33, 38; P.A. 84-118, S. 2, 5; P.A. 87-509, S. 2, 24; P.A. 94-121, S. 17, 33; P.A. 97-67, S. 3, 9.)

History: 1967 act, effective January 1, 1968; 1969 act provided for application for enrollment in a political party at any time before board has acted on applicant’s admission thus entitling applicant privileges of party enrollment from time his admission is approved; 1971 act further provided for offering applications for enrollment upon administration of elector’s oath and for immediate entitlement to the privileges of party enrollment; P.A. 75-47 provided for combined application for registration and enrollment and further provided that person applying for enrollment is entitled to privileges of party enrollment upon administration of elector’s oath, effective January 1, 1976; P.A. 75-269 provided that if application for enrollment is made after session held on third Saturday before primary, applicant shall only be entitled to privileges of party enrollment immediately after primary; P.A. 76-128 provided that where qualification for age or citizenship for admission is attained following the third Saturday before primary and prior to day of primary such person shall upon being made an elector and applying for enrollment be immediately entitled to all privileges of party membership; P.A. 77-298 changed “third Saturday” to “fourteenth day” before a primary where appearing; P.A. 78-153 provided that if application for enrollment made on day of caucus or convention, entitlement to privileges of party enrollment arises immediately after caucus or convention, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 79-357 added “residence” to “age” or “citizenship” qualifications where, if attained after the fourteenth day before a primary and prior to day of primary, admission as elector and application for enrollment immediately entitles elector to all privileges of party enrollment; P.A. 79-363 made technical changes; P.A. 84-118 changed time limit for enrollment from fourteenth day to noon of last business day before primary, deleting obsolete proviso entitling certain persons to enroll after fourteenth day before primary; P.A. 87-509 deleted provision requiring admitting official to initial both copies of application for enrollment, deliver one copy to registrars of voters and return one copy to elector and added sentence providing that no person admitted after twelve o’clock noon on last business day before primary shall be permitted to vote in such primary; P.A. 94-121 deleted provision requiring admitting official to notify applicant re application for enrollment, substituted “on an application for admission as an elector shall upon acquisition of electoral privileges” for “in such manner shall upon administration of the elector’s oath” in second sentence, inserted reference to Sec. 9-59 and applied Subdivs. (1) and (2) to application for enrollment filed with registrars of applicant’s town of residence instead of application made by applicant, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 97-67 repealed provisions re entitlement to privileges of party enrollment for person applying for enrollment on application for admission as an elector, designated remaining provision as Subsec. (a) and added Subsec. (b) re exception for an applicant under Sec. 9-26 to vote in a primary, effective July 1, 1997.

See Sec. 9-57 re application for enrollment by new elector at time of admission and attachment of party privileges.

Secs. 9-23b to 9-23f. Reserved for future use.

Sec. 9-23g. Mail-in application for admission. (a) In addition to the procedures for admission of electors under sections 9-19b, 9-19c, 9-19e, 9-20 and 9-31, any person may apply to a registrar of voters of the town of his residence for admission as an elector in accordance with the provisions of this section and section 9-23h.

(b) The Secretary of the State shall prescribe, and provide to registrars of voters, town clerks and voter registration agencies, as defined in section 9-23n, application forms and other materials necessary to complete such application and admission process. The Secretary of the State, registrars of voters and town clerks shall provide a reasonable number of such forms and materials to any elector who requests such forms and materials. The secretary shall also, in the course of the secretary’s elections duties, prepare instructions and related materials describing procedures for such application and admission process and shall provide the materials to registrars of voters and town clerks. The application shall contain the information required under section 9-23h. All statements of the applicant shall be made under the penalties of perjury. The application for admission as an elector shall include a statement that (1) specifies each eligibility requirement, (2) contains an attestation that the application meets each such requirement, and (3) requires the signature of the applicant under penalty of perjury. Nothing in this section or section 9-23h shall require that the application be executed in the state. An applicant who is unable to write may cause the applicant’s name to be signed on the application form by an authorized agent who shall, in the space provided for the signature, write the name of the applicant followed by the word “by” and the agent’s own signature. The completed application may be mailed or returned in person to the office of the registrars of voters or the office of the town clerk of the applicant’s town of residence or a voter registration agency. If the applicant entrusts the applicant’s application to another person or to such a voter registration agency for mailing or return to the registrars of voters, such person or agency shall immediately mail or return the application. Any such voter registration agency shall also provide the applicant with an application receipt, on which the agency shall record (A) the date that the agency received the application, using an official date stamp bearing the name of the agency, and (B) the party affiliation, if any, of the applicant. The agency shall provide such receipt whether the application was submitted in person or by mail. The town clerk shall promptly forward any application which the town clerk receives to the registrars of voters. Such application form shall be provided by or authorized by the Secretary of the State.

(c) Forthwith upon receipt of a registration application in the office of the registrars of voters, the registrar shall mark such date on the application and review the application to determine whether the applicant has properly completed it and is legally qualified to register. Forthwith upon completing his review, the registrar shall (1) indicate on the application whether the application has been accepted or rejected, (2) mail a notice to the applicant, (3) indicate on the application the date on which such notice is mailed, and (4) provide a copy of such notice to the other registrar. If the registrar determines that the applicant has not properly completed the application or is not legally qualified to register, the notice shall indicate that the application has been rejected and shall state the reason for rejection. If the registrar determines that the applicant has properly completed the application and is legally qualified to register, the notice shall indicate that the application has been accepted. A notice of acceptance or a notice of rejection shall be sent (A) within four days of receipt of an application during the period beginning on the forty-ninth day before an election and ending on the twenty-first day before such election, (B) on the day of receipt of an application if it is received (i) during the period beginning on the twentieth day before such election and ending on the fourteenth day before such election, (ii) during the period beginning on the thirteenth day before an election and ending on election day if the application has been received by the fourteenth day before an election by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles or by a voter registration agency, (iii) during the period beginning on the twenty-first day before a primary and ending on the fifth day before a primary, or (iv) during the period beginning on the fourth day before a primary and ending at twelve o’clock noon on the last weekday before a primary, if the application has been postmarked by the fifth day before the primary and is received in the office of the registrars of voters during such period or if the application is received by the fifth day before a primary by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles or by a voter registration agency, and (C) within ten days of receipt of an application at any other time. A notice of acceptance shall be sent by first-class mail with instructions on the envelope that it be returned if not deliverable at the address shown on the envelope. A notice of acceptance shall indicate the effective date of the applicant’s registration and enrollment, the date of the next regularly scheduled election or primary in which the applicant shall be eligible to vote and the applicant’s precinct and polling place. If a notice of acceptance of an application is returned undelivered, the registrars shall forthwith take the necessary action in accordance with section 9-35 or 9-43, notwithstanding the May first deadline in section 9-35. An applicant for admission as an elector pursuant to this section and section 9-23h may only be admitted as an elector by a registrar of voters of the town of his residence. Not later than December thirty-first, annually, the Secretary of the State shall establish an official calendar of all deadlines set forth in this subsection for regularly scheduled elections and primaries to be held in the following calendar year.

(d) (1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the privileges of an elector for any applicant for admission under this section and section 9-23h shall attach immediately upon approval by the registrar, and the registrars shall enter the name of the elector on the registry list.

(2) Except as provided in subdivision (3) of this subsection, if a mailed application is postmarked, or if a delivered application is received in the office of the registrars of voters, after the fourteenth day before an election or after the fifth day before a primary, the privileges of an elector shall not attach until the day after such election or primary, as the case may be. In such event, the registrars of voters may contact such applicant, either by telephone or mail, in order to inform such applicant of the effect of such late received mail-in application and any applicable deadline for applying for admission in person.

(3) If an application is received after the fourteenth day before an election or after the fifth day before a primary by the Commissioner of Motor Vehicles or by a voter registration agency, the privileges of an elector shall not attach until the day after the election or primary, as the case may be, or on the day the registrar approves it, whichever is later.

(4) If on the day of an election or primary, the name of an applicant does not appear on the official check list, such applicant may present to the moderator at the polls either a notice of acceptance received through the mail or an application receipt that was previously provided to the applicant pursuant to section 9-19e, subsection (b) of section 9-19h, subsection (b) of this section or section 9-23n. If an applicant presents said notice or receipt, and either the registrars of voters find the original application or the applicant submits a new application at the polls, the registrar, or assistant registrar upon notice to and approval by the registrar, shall add such person’s name and address to the official check list on such day and the person shall be allowed to vote if otherwise eligible to vote and the person presents to the checkers at the polling place a preprinted form of identification pursuant to subparagraph (A) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 9-261.

(e) A registration application filed under this section shall be rejected if the application (1) has not been signed or dated by the applicant or the authorized agent of the applicant pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, (2) does not indicate the applicant’s date of birth or bona fide residence, (3) does not indicate United States citizenship, provided the registrars of voters have contacted such applicant to provide an opportunity to answer such question, or (4) is determined by the Secretary of the State to be substantially defective. No registration application filed under this section shall be rejected if the application fails to provide the applicant’s Social Security number or the zip code of the applicant’s bona fide residence.

(f) Upon admission of an applicant under subsection (d) of this section, who indicated on his registration application that he changed residence since voting last in Connecticut, the registrar shall notify the registrar who accepted the voter’s last registration, and the registrar in the voter’s place of last residence, if different. Notification shall be made upon a form prescribed by the Secretary of the State. A registrar receiving such a notification shall delete the elector’s name from the registry list.

(g) All provisions of the general statutes relating to electors, which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this section, shall apply to electors admitted under the provisions of this section.

(h) The Secretary of the State may adopt regulations, in accordance with the provisions of chapter 54, to carry out the purposes of this section and section 9-23h.

(P.A. 87-409, S. 1, 3; P.A. 88-344, S. 1, 5; P.A. 91-351, S. 24, 28; P.A. 93-386, S. 1, 5; P.A. 94-121, S. 18, 33; P.A. 97-67, S. 1, 9; 97-154, S. 20, 27; P.A. 99-112, S. 1; P.A. 02-83, S. 4, 5; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 91; P.A. 04-113, S. 2; P.A. 07-194, S. 42.)

History: P.A. 88-344 inserted new Subsec. (a) defining “witnessing official”, relettered former Subsec. (a) as Subsec. (b) and substituted “in accordance with the provisions of this section and sections 9-23h and 9-23i” for “by mail” in Subsec. (b), relettered former Subsec. (b) as Subsec. (c) and amended Subsec. (c) to require each application form to have a receipt attached and secretary to prepare and provide materials, to substitute “witnessing official” for “notary public, commissioner of the superior court or justice of the peace”, to substantially modify procedure for execution of application, to allow application to be returned in person instead of by mail only and to office of town clerk instead of to registrar of voters only and to restrict reproduction of form, inserted new Subsec. (d) re restriction on witnessing and certifying execution of applications by candidates, relettered former Subsec. (c) as Subsec. (e) and substantially amended procedures in Subsec. (e) for review of applications and notification of applicants, repealed former Subsec. (d) and substituted new Subsec. (f) re time of attachment of privileges of an elector, relettered former Subsec. (e) as Subsec. (g) and substantially revised provisions re when an application shall be rejected, not rejected, relettered former Subsec. (f) as Subsec. (h) and former Subsec. (g) as Subsec. (i) and added Subsec. (j) re adoption of regulations; P.A. 91-351 added Subsec. (e)(B)(i) re notice requirement for application received during period beginning on twentieth day before election and ending on fourteenth day before election and substituted “fourteenth” for “twenty-first” day in Subsec. (f)(2); P.A. 93-386 repealed requirement that execution of applications be witnessed, deleting former Subsecs. (a) and (d) and all other references to witnessing officials and relettering remaining Subsecs. accordingly, amended relettered Subsec. (b) to require that applicant’s statements be made under penalties for false swearing before election officials instead of false statement and that elector’s oath be self-administered by applicant, to provide that this section and Sec. 9-23h do not require application to be executed in the state and to allow member of immediate family of applicant or designee of ill or disabled applicant to mail or return application, amended relettered Subsec. (c) by adding “Forthwith” and requiring registrars to take necessary action in accordance with Sec. 9-35 or 9-43 if notice of acceptance of application is returned undelivered, instead of requiring registrars to reject if so returned within ten days, amended Subdiv. (1) of relettered Subsec. (d) to require privileges of an elector to attach immediately upon approval of application by registrar instead of on tenth day after registrar mails notice of acceptance to applicant and deleted former Subdiv. (3) and amended relettered Subdiv. (3) for consistency, amended Subdiv. (2) by substituting “If a mailed application is postmarked, or if a delivered application is received” for “If an application is received” and amended relettered Subsec. (e) to prohibit an application from being rejected for failure to provide applicant’s Social Security number, effective January 1, 1994; P.A. 94-121 amended Subsec. (b) by adding references to voter registration agencies, repealing requirements that form have receipt attached, be completed by applicant and be returned by specified persons and that applicant self-administer the oath, substituting “penalties of perjury” for “penalties for false swearing”, adding sentence re statement required to be included in application, and repealing restrictions on reproduction of form and adding sentence requiring form to be provided by or authorized by secretary of the state, amended Subsec. (c) by inserting new subclause (ii) re application received by fourteenth day before election by commissioner of motor vehicles or voter registration agency and requiring registrars to act “forthwith” if notice is returned, “notwithstanding the May first deadline in section 9-35”, and renumbering former subclause (ii) to subclause (iii), added new Subsec. (d)(3) re application received after fourteenth day before an election by commissioner of motor vehicles or voter registration agency and renumbered former Subdiv. (3) as Subdiv. (4), and amended Subsec. (e) by deleting references to birthplace and sex, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 97-67 amended Subsec. (c) by substituting “on the fifth day before a primary” for “at twelve o’clock noon on the last weekday before a primary” in subclause (B)(iii), adding new subclause (B)(iv) re postmarked applications, and deleting text for consistency with such changes and amended Subsec. (d)(2) and (3) by inserting “or after the fifth day before a primary” and “or primary, as the case may be”, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 97-154 amended Subsec. (b) to require person or agency entrusted to mail or return an application to do so immediately, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 99-112 made technical changes; P.A. 02-83 amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality and to add provisions requiring voter registration agencies to provide applicants with application receipts, and amended Subsec. (d)(4) to establish procedure under which applicant may submit receipt to moderator and to revise procedure under which applicant may submit notice of acceptance to moderator, effective January 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 amended Subsec. (e)(3) by inserting “provided the registrars of voters have contacted such applicant to provide an opportunity to answer such question”, effective January 1, 2004; P.A. 04-113 amended Subsec. (b) to designate existing recording requirement for voter registration agency as Subpara. (A) and add Subpara. (B) requiring voter registration agency to record any party affiliation of applicant on receipt, effective January 1, 2005; P.A. 07-194 amended Subsec. (g)(2) to authorize registrars to contact applicants and inform them of effect of late received application and deadline for applying in person, effective July 5, 2007.

See Sec. 1-2a re construction of references to “United States mail”, “postmark” or “registered or certified mail”.

Sec. 9-23h. Application form. The application provided for in section 9-23g shall provide spaces for the following information for each applicant: (1) Name, (2) bona fide residence, including street number, street address, apartment number if applicable, town and zip code, (3) telephone number, (4) date of birth, (5) whether the applicant is registered as an elector in any other town in the state of Connecticut or in any other state, and if so, the applicant’s last previous voting residence, (6) whether the applicant is a United States citizen, (7) whether the applicant will be eighteen years of age on or before election day, (8) party affiliation, if any, (9) the applicant’s signature and date of signature, and (10) the applicant’s Connecticut motor vehicle operator’s license number or, if none, the last four digits of the applicant’s Social Security number. The spaces for the applicant’s telephone number and party affiliation shall indicate that such information does not have to be provided. On any such application printed on or after January 1, 2006, the space for the applicant’s party affiliation shall also include a list of the names of the major parties, as defined in section 9-372, as options for the applicant. The spaces regarding United States citizenship and whether the applicant will be eighteen years of age on or before election day shall indicate that if the applicant answers “No” to either question, the applicant may not complete the voter registration form. No Social Security number on any such form filed prior to January 1, 2000, may be disclosed to the public or to any governmental agency. The application shall contain a notice that if the applicant does not receive a notice of acceptance or rejection of the application from the office of the registrars of voters for the municipality in which the applicant resides, the applicant should contact said office. The application shall also contain any other information, questions or instructions prescribed by the Secretary of the State.

(P.A. 88-344, S. 2, 5; P.A. 93-386, S. 2, 5; P.A. 94-121, S. 19, 33; P.A. 99-268, S. 41, 46; P.A. 00-169, S. 22; P.A. 02-83, S. 7; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 92; P.A. 05-235, S. 16.)

History: P.A. 93-386 required form to provide space for applicant’s Social Security number, required secretary and registrars to comply with Privacy Act re request for such number and prohibited public disclosure of the number, amended Subpara. (A) by substituting “until approved by the registrars of voters,” for “until he receives a notice of acceptance from the registrars of voters, which should be within three weeks,” amended Subpara. (B) by adding reference to Sec. 9-27, deleted former Subparas. (C), (E) and (F), re witnessing official, and renumbered remaining Subparas. accordingly, substituted new Subpara. (D) for former Subpara. (H), requiring summary of applicable penalties to be contained on application instead of full text and amended relettered Subpara. (E) to provide for applicant to retain receipt, effective January 1, 1994; P.A. 94-121 deleted requirements that application provide spaces for applicant’s sex, birthplace and printed or typed name and address and contain instructions re question re citizenship and information specified in former Subparas. (A) to (E), inclusive, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 99-268 repealed requirement that application provide space for applicant’s Social Security number and extended prohibition on disclosure of Social Security numbers on forms to the public or to any governmental agency, effective January 1, 2000; P.A. 00-169 revised effective date of P.A. 99-268 but without affecting this section; P.A. 02-83 made a technical change for purposes of gender neutrality and required application to contain notice that applicant should contact registrars’ office if applicant does not receive notice of acceptance or rejection, effective January 1, 2003; June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 added new Subdiv. (7) to require application to provide space for whether applicant will be 18 years of age on or before election day, renumbered former Subdivs. (7) and (8) as Subdivs. (8) and (9), added Subdiv. (10) to require application to provide space for applicant’s Connecticut motor vehicle operator’s license number or, if none, the last four digits of applicant’s Social Security number, and added provision to require spaces re citizenship and whether applicant will be 18 years of age to indicate that if applicant answers “No”, applicant may not complete form, effective January 1, 2004; P.A. 05-235 required application to include list of names of major parties, effective January 1, 2006.

Sec. 9-23i. Prohibition on witnessing official charging a fee. Section 9-23i is repealed, effective January 1, 1994.

(P.A. 88-344, S. 3, 5; P.A. 93-386, S. 4, 5.)

Sec. 9-23j. Definition. As used in sections 9-7b and 9-12, subsection (a) of section 9-17, sections 9-19b, 9-19e, 9-19g, 9-19h, 9-19i, 9-20, 9-21, 9-23a, 9-23g, 9-23h, 9-23k to 9-23o, inclusive, 9-26, 9-31a, 9-32, 9-35, 9-35b, 9-35c, 9-40a, 9-42, 9-43, 9-50a, 9-56 and 9-59, “public assistance offices” means offices of state agencies that administer or provide services under the supplemental nutrition assistance, Medicaid, Women, Infants and Children, and temporary family assistance programs.

(P.A. 94-121, S. 1, 33; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-2, S. 11, 165; P.A. 09-9, S. 3.)

History: P.A. 94-121 effective January 1, 1995; June 18 Sp. Sess. P.A. 97-2 replaced a reference to “Aid to Families with Dependent Children” with “temporary family assistance”, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 09-9 replaced “food stamp” with “supplemental nutrition assistance”, effective May 4, 2009.

Sec. 9-23k. National Voter Registration Act of 1993. Coordination of state responsibilities. Enforcement. The Secretary of the State shall be the chief state election official responsible for coordination of state responsibilities under the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, P.L. 103-31, as amended from time to time, except that the State Elections Enforcement Commission shall be responsible for the investigation of any complaint alleging a violation of sections 9-7b and 9-12, subsection (a) of section 9-17, sections 9-19b, 9-19e, 9-19g to 9-19k, inclusive, 9-20, 9-21, 9-23a, 9-23g, 9-23h, 9-23j to 9-23o, inclusive, 9-26, 9-31a, 9-32, 9-35, 9-35b, 9-35c, 9-40a, 9-42, 9-43, 9-50a, 9-56 and 9-59 and shall have the authority to enforce the provisions of said sections by use of its powers as prescribed in section 9-7b.

(P.A. 94-121, S. 2, 33; P.A. 12-56, S. 13.)

History: P.A. 94-121 effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 12-56 added references to Secs. 9-19j and 9-19k, effective January 1, 2014.

Sec. 9-23l. Mail voter registration application form prescribed by Federal Election Commission. Registrars of voters shall accept the mail voter registration application form prescribed by the Federal Election Commission pursuant to the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, P.L. 103-31, as amended from time to time, as an application for admission as an elector for all elections in Connecticut. The procedures in subsections (c), (d), (f) and (g) of section 9-23g which are not inconsistent with the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, P.L. 103-31, as amended from time to time, shall apply to applications made under this section.

(P.A. 94-121, S. 3, 33.)

History: P.A. 94-121 effective January 1, 1995.

Sec. 9-23m. Secretary to make form available. Changes to conform to federal law. The Secretary of the State shall make available for distribution the mail voter registration application form prescribed by the Federal Election Commission pursuant to the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, P.L. 103-31, as amended from time to time. The secretary may make any changes in any forms required by this title which, in the opinion of the secretary, are necessary to cause said forms to conform to the provisions of applicable federal law.

(P.A. 94-121, S. 4, 33.)

History: P.A. 94-121 effective January 1, 1995; (Revisor’s note: In 1997 a reference to “title 9” was replaced editorially by the Revisors with “this title” for consistency with customary statutory usage).

Sec. 9-23n. Voter registration agencies. Duties. (a) As used in this section, “voter registration agency” means (1) public assistance offices, (2) all offices in the state that provide state-funded programs primarily engaged in providing services to persons with disabilities, (3) libraries that are open to the public, and (4) such other appropriate offices as the Secretary of the State shall designate in accordance with the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, P.L. 103-31, as amended from time to time.

(b) Voter registration agencies shall (1) distribute mail voter registration application forms, (2) assist applicants for such assistance or services in completing voter registration application forms, except for applicants who refuse such assistance, (3) accept completed voter registration application forms and provide each applicant with an application receipt, on which the agency shall record the date that the agency received the application, using an official date stamp bearing the name of the agency, and (4) immediately transmit all such applications to the registrars of voters of the town of voting residence of the applicants. The agency shall provide such receipt whether the application was submitted in person or by mail. If a registration application is accepted within five days before the last day for registration to vote in a regular election, the application shall be transmitted to the registrars of voters of the town of voting residence of the applicant not later than five days after the date of acceptance. The voter registration agency shall indicate on the completed mail voter registration application form, without indicating the identity of the voter registration agency, the date of its acceptance by such agency, to ensure that any eligible applicant is registered to vote in an election if it is received by the registration agency by the last day for registration to vote in an election. If a state-funded program primarily engaged in providing services to persons with disabilities provides services to a person with a disability at the person’s home, the agency shall provide such voter registration services at the person’s home. The procedures in subsections (c), (d), (f) and (g) of section 9-23g that are not inconsistent with the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, P.L. 103-31, as amended from time to time, shall apply to applications made under this section. Officials and employees of such voter registration agencies are not admitting officials, as defined in section 9-17a, and may not restore, under the provisions of section 9-46a, electoral privileges of persons convicted of a felony.

(P.A. 94-121, S. 6, 33; P.A. 99-112, S. 2; P.A. 02-83, S. 6.)

History: P.A. 94-121 effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 99-112 divided existing provisions into Subsec. (a) which defines “voter registration agency” and Subsec. (b) which sets out the duties of voter registration agencies; P.A. 02-83 amended Subsec. (b) to make technical changes and to require voter registration agencies to provide applicants with application receipts, effective January 1, 2003.

Sec. 9-23o. Distribution of form by voter registration agencies. Declinations. Assistance. A voter registration agency, as defined in section 9-23n shall comply with the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, P.L. 103-31, as amended from time to time, and shall distribute with each application for service or assistance provided by the agency, and with each recertification, renewal or change of address form relating to such service or assistance a mail voter registration application form approved by the Secretary of the State unless the applicant declines to register to vote pursuant to the provisions of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, P.L. 103-31, as amended from time to time. Such declination shall be in writing, except in the case of an application for service or assistance provided by a library, or a recertification, renewal or change of address form relating to such library service or assistance. Such voter registration agency shall provide each applicant to register to vote the same degree of assistance with regard to the completion of the registration application form as is provided by the agency with regard to the completion of its own forms, unless the applicant refuses such assistance.

(P.A. 94-121, S. 7, 33; P.A. 99-112, S. 3.)

History: P.A. 94-121 effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 99-112 made technical changes.

Sec. 9-23p. Public institutions of higher education to distribute voter registration application forms and provide assistance. Each public institution of higher education shall (1) distribute mail voter registration application forms, and (2) assist applicants who request assistance in completing voter registration application forms.

(P.A. 99-112, S. 4.)

Sec. 9-23q. State-wide student voter registration drive. The Secretary of the State shall annually designate, after consultation with registrars of voters, a period of time between January first and May thirty-first for a state-wide student voter registration drive and shall coordinate and publicize such drive.

(P.A. 03-54, S. 1.)

Sec. 9-23r. Submission of identifying information with mail voter registration application. (a) On or after January 1, 2003, any person who is applying, by mail, to register to vote for the first time in this state may submit as part of such voter registration application: (1) A copy of a current and valid photo identification, (2) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck or government document that shows the name and address of the voter, (3) a valid Connecticut motor vehicle operator’s license number, or (4) the last four digits of the individual’s Social Security number. Members of the armed forces and persons entitled to use the federal post card application for absentee ballots under section 9-153a are not required to provide identification when registering by mail. No information submitted as part of a voter registration application under this subsection shall be subject to disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act pursuant to chapter 14, except for the name, address, date of birth and telephone number of the applicant.

(b) If an individual submits such information pursuant to this section as part of the individual’s voter registration application and, with respect to subdivision (3) or (4) of subsection (a) of this section, the registrars of voters are able to match the information submitted with an existing Connecticut identification record bearing the same number, name and date of birth as provided, such individual shall not be required to produce identification when voting in person or by absentee ballot and may sign a statement as described in subparagraph (B) of subdivision (2) of subsection (a) of section 9-261 in lieu of presenting identification when voting in person.

(c) Any additional documentation submitted as part of the voter registration application pursuant to this section may be destroyed by the registrars of voters after verification pursuant to the Help America Vote Act, P.L. 107-252, as amended from time to time.

(d) If an individual described in subsection (a) of this section does not submit the identification described in subsection (a) of this section as part of the individual’s application for admission as an elector, when the individual has entered the polling place in an election for federal office, the individual shall present: (1) A current and valid photo identification, or (2) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck or other government document that shows the name and address of the voter. If an individual does not meet the requirements of this subsection in an election for federal office, such individual may cast a provisional ballot prescribed under sections 9-232i to 9-232o, inclusive.

(e) If an individual described in subsection (a) of this section does not submit the identification described in subsection (a) of this section as part of the individual’s application for admission as an elector, and if the individual votes by absentee ballot in an election for federal office, the individual shall enclose in the outer absentee ballot envelope, and not in the inner envelope with the ballot: (1) A copy of a current and valid photo identification, or (2) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the name and address of the voter. If an individual does not meet the requirements of this subsection in an election for federal office, such individual’s absentee ballot shall be processed in accordance with the provisions of subdivision (2) of subsection (d) of section 9-150a and treated as a provisional ballot for federal office only, pursuant to sections 9-232i to 9-232o, inclusive.

(June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6, S. 90; P.A. 05-188, S. 2.)

History: June 30 Sp. Sess. P.A. 03-6 effective January 1, 2004; P.A. 05-188 amended Subsec. (a) to prohibit disclosure of information submitted as part of application, except for name, address, date of birth and telephone number of applicant, effective July 1, 2005.

See Sec. 9-232i for definition of “election for federal office”.

Sec. 9-24. Admission as electors of persons in armed forces; definitions. As used in sections 9-25 to 9-31, inclusive, the term “members of the armed forces” shall include members of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, Air Force or Merchant Marine of the United States, or any of their respective components.

(1949 Rev., S. 1022; 1953, S. 526d; P.A. 73-630, S. 7, 19.)

History: P.A. 73-630 deleted provision concerning period of residency.

Sec. 9-25. Admission of members of the armed forces as electors. The town clerk or assistant town clerk or either registrar of voters or deputy or assistant registrar, on any week day and at any time before five o’clock p.m. on the last week day before any regular election, when requested in writing by any member of the armed forces desiring to be made an elector, or by any former member of the armed forces discharged therefrom within the calendar year immediately preceding such request, may forthwith examine the qualifications of such person and admit him to the elector’s oath if he is qualified.

(1949 Rev., S. 1021; 1953, S. 527d; 1969, P.A. 718, S. 1; P.A. 75-9, S. 1, 2.)

History: 1969 act added provision for former member of armed forces discharged within calendar year immediately preceding request to be eligible for special session; P.A. 75-9 substituted town clerk and other officials for board of admission, deleted “hold a special session” leaving provision to examine qualifications forthwith.

Sec. 9-25a. Definitions. As used in this section and sections 9-26 and 9-28, “armed forces” has the meaning provided in section 27-103; “member of the Merchant Marine” means a person, other than a member of the armed forces, employed as an officer or member of the crew of a vessel documented under the laws of the United States, or of a vessel owned by the United States, or of a vessel of foreign-flag registry under charter to or control of the United States, or a person, other than a member of the armed forces, enrolled with the United States for employment, or for training for employment, or maintained by the United States for emergency relief service, as an officer or member of the crew of any such vessel, but does not include persons so employed, or enrolled for such employment or for training for such employment, or maintained for such emergency relief services, on the Great Lakes or the inland waterways; “dependent” means any person who in fact is dependent; and “induction into the armed forces” shall be construed to include the latest reenlistment in the armed forces.

(1963, P.A. 403, S. 1; February, 1965, P.A. 210; P.A. 73-630, S. 8, 19; P.A. 81-350, S. 7, 17; P.A. 93-384, S. 19, 28; P.A. 14-122, S. 83.)

History: 1965 act defined “induction into the armed forces”; P.A. 73-630 added “bona fide” to residence and clarified “town in this state in which he last resided” with respect to spouse or dependent; P.A. 81-350 eliminated a definition of the term “town in this state in which he last resided”; P.A. 93-384 deleted provision applying definitions to Sec. 9-27, effective January 1, 1994; P.A. 14-122 made technical changes.

Sec. 9-26. Application of member of armed forces or related group or person temporarily residing outside of the United States who is unable to appear in person. Any person who, because of service in the armed forces, membership in the United States Merchant Marine, membership in a religious or welfare group or agency attached to and serving with the armed forces or civilian employment with the United States or because he is a spouse or dependent of any such person, and any person who because of temporary residence outside the territorial limits of the several states of the United States and the District of Columbia, may, at any time, in the manner and upon a form prescribed by the Secretary of the State, make application, in person or by mail, to the town clerk of such town for such examination and for admission as an elector. Upon such form, signed by the applicant, he shall state under penalties of perjury, his name, bona fide residence by street and number, if any, in such town and date of birth, and that he is, at the time of making such application, a citizen of the United States. He shall also state that he is (1) a member of the armed forces, of the merchant marine or of a religious or welfare group or agency attached to and serving with the armed forces, (2) a civilian employee of the United States, (3) a spouse or dependent of any person described in subdivision (1) or (2), or (4) a person temporarily residing outside the territorial limits of the several states of the United States and the District of Columbia. The person shall also state the date of his induction into such armed forces or the date of his joining the merchant marine or such religious or welfare group or agency or of his entering United States employment or moving temporarily outside the territorial limits of the several states of the United States and the District of Columbia; whether his privileges as an elector are forfeited by reason of conviction of crime; and whether he is, at the time of making such application, registered as an elector in any other town in this or any other state. The application form shall provide for application for enrollment in any political party and shall indicate that such enrollment is optional. No Social Security number on any such form filed prior to January 1, 2000, may be disclosed to the public or to any governmental agency. The town clerk may accept such fully completed form as evidence of the qualifications of the applicant to be admitted as an elector. The application for admission as an elector shall include a statement that (A) specifies each eligibility requirement, (B) contains an attestation that the applicant meets each such requirement and (C) requires the signature of the applicant under penalty of perjury. In lieu of the application form prescribed by the secretary under this section, any such person may apply for registration and enrollment on the federal postcard application form provided pursuant to the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, 100 Stat. 924, 42 USC 1973ff et seq., as amended from time to time, or any other applicable law.

(1949 Rev., S. 1023; 1953, S. 528d; 1961, P.A. 266, S. 3; 1963, P.A. 403, S. 2; February, 1965, P.A. 407, S. 9; 1967, P.A. 390, S. 3; 1969, P.A. 694, S. 3; 1972, P.A. 264, S. 3; P.A. 73-630, S. 11, 19; P.A. 79-366, S. 1; P.A. 80-281, S. 5, 31; P.A. 81-350, S. 8, 17; 81-472, S. 7, 159; P.A. 82-472, S. 25, 183; P.A. 83-391, S. 6, 24; P.A. 93-30, S. 10, 14; 93-230, S. 3, 8; 93-384, S. 20, 28; P.A. 94-121, S. 20, 33; P.A. 99-268, S. 42, 46; P.A. 00-169, S. 22.)

History: 1961 act added requirement that, if applicant acquired citizenship by reason of being born abroad of a United States citizen parent or through the naturalization of a parent or spouse, he must present evidence of citizenship as prescribed in Sec. 9-27; 1963 act extended absentee admission privilege to members of the United States merchant marine and of religious or welfare groups or agencies attached to and serving with the armed forces, to civilian employees of the United States and to spouses or dependents of any such persons and provided that attestation of the application form may be executed by a consul, vice consul or deputy consul representing the United States in a foreign country in addition to a commissioned officer in the armed forces; 1965 act amended requirement for information on length of time in residency to include only in such town; 1967 act deleted requirement in case of married woman for information on the date of marriage and birthplace of husband, added requirement for information on maiden name and deleted requirement for applicant who was foreign born to furnish documentary evidence of citizenship, effective January 1, 1968; 1969 act changed reading requirements to any article of the constitution or any section of the statutes; 1972 act changed inability to appear before board for admission to inability to appear at office of town clerk or registrars or at any session of the board, and further provided for town clerk rather than board to accept fully completed form, effective January 1, 1973; P.A. 73-630 deleted certain provisions applying only to spouses or dependents and deleted requirement that form contain attestation concerning the ability to read the English language; P.A. 79-366 deleted requirement for information as to single or married status, and, if married woman, name of husband and maiden name; P.A. 80-281 added provision that members of the armed forces or merchant marine and their spouses and dependents may use the federal postcard application form in lieu of form prescribed and that failure of applicant to take elector’s oath of Connecticut on such postcard application will not invalidate the application; P.A. 81-350 clarified that application is to be made to the clerk or board for admission of electors of the town in which the applicant is a bona fide resident at the time of application; P.A. 81-472 and P.A. 82-472 made technical corrections; P.A. 83-391 deleted references to sessions of board for admission of electors and provided for administration of elector’s oath in a foreign country by any American citizen; P.A. 93-30 updated reference to federal act, effective July 1, 1993; P.A. 93-230 added provisions re request for applicant to furnish his Social Security number, effective January 1, 1994; P.A. 93-384 extended provisions of section to persons having temporary residence outside the United States and the District of Columbia, provided for application form to be prescribed by secretary of the state instead of the form prescribed in Sec. 9-27, required form to provide for application for enrollment and required applicant to complete form and self-administer oath under penalties of false statement instead of taking oath before an official, effective January 1, 1994; P.A. 94-121 repealed applicability to persons who expect to be unable to appear in person for examination, substituted “penalties of perjury” for “penalties of false statement”, repealed requirement that applicant state birthplace and requirements re elector’s oath and added provision re statement required to be included in application, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 99-268 repealed requirement that form include request for applicant to furnish Social Security number and extended prohibition on disclosure of Social Security numbers on forms to the public or to any governmental agency, effective January 1, 2000; P.A. 00-169 revised effective date of P.A. 99-268 but without affecting this section.

Sec. 9-31a. Special admission procedures for permanently physically disabled persons. (a) As used in this section and section 9-31b, “permanently physically disabled person” means a person who, by reason of a major defect or infirmity of body, whether congenital or acquired by accident, injury or disease, is permanently physically incapacitated to a degree that prevents him and will continue to prevent him from appearing in person at the office of the town clerk or registrars of the town where he temporarily or permanently resides.

(b) Any permanently physically disabled person may, in the manner prescribed under this section and upon a form as prescribed under section 9-31b, apply to the town clerk or either registrar of voters of such town for examination and admission as an elector of any Connecticut town. (1) In the case of a permanently physically disabled person whose qualifications as to age, citizenship or residence in such town are attained on or before the last session for admission of electors prior to an election to be held in the town, the application shall be submitted so that it will be received by such town clerk or either registrar of voters not later than such last session. Upon receipt of the application, the town clerk or either registrar of voters shall notify the applicant of the day, and the hour, such day to be within ten days of the receipt of the application, at which an admitting official shall meet with the applicant at the temporary or permanent residence of the applicant. (2) In the case of a permanently physically disabled person whose qualifications as to age, citizenship or residence in such town are attained after the last session for admission of electors prior to an election to be held in the town, the application shall be submitted so that it will be received by such town clerk or either registrar of voters not later than the opening of the limited session for the admission of electors held, under section 9-17, on the last weekday prior to the election. Upon receipt of the application, the town clerk or either registrar of voters shall notify the applicant of the day, and the hour, such day and hour to be not later than 5:00 p.m. on the last weekday before the election, at which an admitting official shall meet with the applicant at the temporary or permanent residence of the applicant.

(c) Such admitting official shall meet at the appointed time with the applicant for the purpose of examining his qualifications as an elector and for the purpose of admitting him as an elector if the applicant is found qualified. Such official shall make available to the applicant at such time, upon request, a copy of the statement that specifies each eligibility requirement and contains an attestation that the applicant meets each such requirement (1) in video form in accordance with procedures established by the registrars of voters and (2) in braille, large print and audio form. Such official shall provide the applicant with a written notice of approval or disapproval at that time, except as otherwise provided in section 9-19e. Any person making application for registration under this section shall be entitled to the privileges of an elector and party enrollment, if applicable, from the time such application for admission as an elector is approved by the town clerk or registrars of voters of his voting residence.

(1959, P.A. 200, S. 1, 2, 5; 1969, P.A. 198, S. 1; 1971, P.A. 768, S. 10; P.A. 75-567, S. 59, 80; P.A. 83-391, S. 7, 24; P.A. 84-319, S. 8, 49; P.A. 85-613, S. 89, 154; P.A. 88-48, S. 3; P.A. 89-234, S. 2; P.A. 91-351, S. 25, 28; P.A. 94-121, S. 21, 33.)

History: 1969 act provided that application by mail may be made to either registrar as well as town clerk, to be mailed so as not to be received later than three weeks, in lieu of three months, prior to next regular election and that upon receipt, applicant to be notified of day and hour within two weeks, in lieu of two months, of receipt at which time, at place of confinement applicant to be examined by either town clerk or a registrar and made admission conditioned on approval of application by board; 1971 act added “at the office of the town clerk or registrars” to any session held by board, as places where physical incapacity prevents attendance, substituted admitting official for town clerk or registrars and deleted reference to admission subject to approval of board; P.A. 75-567 deleted reference to Sec. 9-31c re applicability of definitions; P.A. 83-391 eliminated references to board for admission of electors and to Secs. 9-16 and 9-22; P.A. 84-319 amended section to provide uniformity in statutes pertaining to on-location admissions sessions for handicapped persons, students and patients at hospitals and nursing homes; P.A. 85-613 made technical changes; P.A. 88-48 divided section into Subsecs. And added Subsec. (b)(2) establishing procedure for admission of permanently physically disabled persons after last session for admission prior to election; P.A. 89-234 amended Subsec. (c) to require admitting official to make elector’s oath available in video, braille, large print and audio form; P.A. 91-351 substituted “ten days” for “two weeks” in Subsec. (b); P.A. 94-121 amended Subsec. (c) by substituting “admitting him as an elector” for “administering the elector’s oath” and “statement that specifies each eligibility requirement and contains an attestation that the applicant meets each such requirement” for “elector’s oath”, effective January 1, 1995.

Sec. 9-31b. Application form. Such application shall be in form substantially as follows:

APPLICATION OF PERMANENTLY PHYSICALLY DISABLED
PERSON FOR ADMISSION AS AN ELECTOR

To the Town Clerk of the town of …. or to the registrar of voters of the …. Party of the town of …. I hereby apply for admission as an elector:

(1) My name is …. (last name) (first name) (initial).

(2) My bona fide residence is …. (street and number), but I am presently residing at …. (street, number and town if different from residence above).

(3) I am a permanently physically disabled person and my permanent physical disability prevents me and will continue to prevent me from appearing in person at your office.

(4) I am a United States Citizen who has attained the age of eighteen and my electoral privileges are not forfeited by reason of conviction of any disfranchising crime.

Dated at …., Connecticut, this …. day of …., 20…

…. (Signature of Applicant)

(1959, P.A. 200, S. 3; 684, S. 4; February, 1965, P.A. 407, S. 4; 1967, P.A. 390, S. 5; 1969, P.A. 198, S. 2; 1971, P.A. 768, S. 11; 871, S. 65; P.A. 73-630, S. 17, 19; P.A. 78-153, S. 8, 32; P.A. 83-391, S. 8, 24; P.A. 84-319, S. 9, 49.)

History: 1965 act deleted section of form for continuous residence in Connecticut; 1967 act deleted date of marriage and birthplace of husband and whether husband alien or native born in reference to married women, added provision to include maiden name and deleted provision for occupation, effective January 1, 1968; 1969 act changed title of application by deleting “for special session” and adding “of permanently physically disabled person” and added “or to the registrar of voters of the … Party of the town of ….” to the address line; 1971 acts added provision in form for recital of incapacity to prevent applicant from appearing in person at office of town clerk and registrars of voters as well as session held by board, substituted penalty of false statement for penalty of perjury; P.A. 73-630 substituted “my bona fide residence is” for “I reside at”; P.A. 78-153 removed section where marital status to be checked, also section where married woman to indicate name of husband and maiden name, effective January 1, 1979; P.A. 83-391 deleted reference to board for admission of electors; P.A. 84-319 amended section to provide uniformity in statutes pertaining to on-location admission sessions for handicapped persons, students and patients at hospitals and nursing homes; (Revisor’s note: In 2001 the reference in this section to the date “19..” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “20..” to reflect the new millennium).

Sec. 9-46. Forfeiture of electoral rights. (a) A person shall forfeit such person’s right to become an elector and such person’s privileges as an elector upon conviction of a felony and committal to the custody of the Commissioner of Correction for confinement in a correctional institution or facility or a community residence, committal to confinement in a federal correctional institution or facility, or committal to the custody of the chief correctional official of any other state or a county of any other state for confinement in a correctional institution or facility or a community residence in such state or county.

(b) No person who has forfeited and not regained such person’s privileges as an elector, as provided in section 9-46a, may be a candidate for or hold public office.

(1949 Rev., S. 253b; 1953, S. 548d; 1963, P.A. 645, S. 6; P.A. 73-465, S. 1, 3; P.A. 85-192, S. 1, 2; P.A. 96-207, S. 2, 4; P.A. 01-11, S. 2, 4.)

History: 1963 act changed enumeration of crimes bringing forfeiture to felony; P.A. 73-465 provided for forfeiture of right to become an elector as well as forfeiture of privileges as an elector; P.A. 85-192 added Subsec. (b) which prohibits a person who has forfeited and not regained his privileges as an elector from becoming a candidate for or holding public office; P.A. 96-207 deleted exception in Subsec. (a) re person convicted of a crime of nonsupport, effective January 1, 1997; P.A. 01-11 added provisions re committal for confinement in Subsec. (a) and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality in Subsecs. (a) and (b), effective January 1, 2002.

See Sec. 53a-25 re definition of felony.

Cited. 153 C. 208; 169 C. 692; 178 C. 145.

Section fails to provide any procedural safeguards in the nature of notice and right to hearing before loss of such valuable rights as electoral privileges. 34 CS 96. Cited. 43 CS 13.

Sec. 53a-25. Felony: Definition, classification, designation. (a) An offense for which a person may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment in excess of one year is a felony.

(b) Felonies are classified for the purposes of sentence as follows: (1) Class A, (2) class B, (3) class C, (4) class D, (5) unclassified and (6) capital felonies.

(c) The particular classification of each felony defined in this chapter is expressly designated in the section defining it. Any offense defined in any other section of the general statutes which, by virtue of an expressly specified sentence, is within the definition set forth in subsection (a) shall be deemed an unclassified felony.

(1969, P.A. 828, S. 25; P.A. 73-137, S. 6; P.A. 92-260, S. 9.)

History: P.A. 73-137 added capital felonies classification in Subsec. (b); P.A. 92-260 made a technical change in Subsecs. (a) and (c) and amended Subdiv. (6) of Subsec. (b) to delete “for which the sentence of death may be imposed as provided in sections 53a-46a and 53a-54b”.

See Secs. 53a-35 and 53a-35a re sentences for felonies.

See Sec. 53a-41 re fines for felonies.

Cited. 170 C. 601, 603. Police officer may arrest without previous complaint or warrant any person who he has reasonable grounds to believe has committed or is committing a felony. 171 C. 105, 113. Cited. 196 C. 305, 306.

Cited. 9 CA 686, 720, 727. Cited. 28 CA 91, 96.

Cited. 36 CS 551, 560.

Subsec. (a):

Cited. 11 CA 11, 19.

Subsec. (c):

Cited. 9 CA 686, 731. Cited. 11 CA 11, 19.

Cited. 36 CS 527, 530.

Sec. 9-46a. Restoration or granting of electoral privileges. (a) A person who has been convicted of a felony and committed to confinement in a federal or other state correctional institution or facility or community residence shall have such person’s electoral privileges restored upon the payment of all fines in conjunction with the conviction and once such person has been discharged from confinement, and, if applicable, parole.

(b) Upon the release from confinement in a correctional institution or facility or a community residence of a person who has been convicted of a felony and committed to the custody of the Commissioner of Correction and, if applicable, the discharge of such person from parole, (1) the person shall have the right to become an elector, (2) the Commissioner of Correction shall give the person a document certifying that the person has been released from such confinement and, if applicable, has been discharged from parole, (3) if the person was an elector at the time of such felony conviction and, after such release and any such discharge, is residing in the same municipality in which the person resided at the time of such felony conviction, the person’s electoral privileges shall be restored, and (4) if the person was an elector at the time of such felony conviction and, after such release and any such discharge, is residing in a different municipality or if the person was not an elector at the time of such felony conviction, the person’s electoral privileges shall be restored or granted upon submitting to an admitting official satisfactory proof of the person’s qualifications to be admitted as an elector. The provisions of subdivisions (1) to (4), inclusive, of this subsection shall not apply to any person convicted of a felony for a violation of any provision of this title until such person has been discharged from any parole or probation for such felony.

(c) The registrars of voters of the municipality in which a person is admitted as an elector pursuant to subsection (a) or (b) of this section, within thirty days after the date on which such person is admitted, shall notify the registrars of voters of the municipality wherein such person resided at the time of such person’s conviction that such person’s electoral rights have been so restored.

(d) The Commissioner of Correction shall establish procedures to inform those persons who have been convicted of a felony and committed to the custody of said commissioner for confinement in a correctional institution or facility or a community residence, and are eligible to have their electoral privileges restored or granted pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, of the right and procedures to have such privileges restored. The Office of Adult Probation shall, within available appropriations, inform such persons who are on probation on January 1, 2002, of their right to become electors and procedures to have their electoral privileges restored, which shall be in accordance with subsections (b) and (c) of this section.

(e) The Commissioner of Correction shall, on or before the fifteenth day of each month, transmit to the Secretary of the State a list of all persons convicted of a felony and committed to the custody of said commissioner who, during the preceding calendar month, have been released from confinement in a correctional institution or facility or a community residence and, if applicable, discharged from parole. Such lists shall include the names, birth dates and addresses of such persons, with the dates of their convictions and the crimes of which such persons have been convicted. The Secretary of the State shall transmit such lists to the registrars of the municipalities in which such convicted persons resided at the time of their convictions and to the registrars of any municipalities where the secretary believes such persons may be electors.

(P.A. 75-354, S. 1, 3; P.A. 76-22; P.A. 96-207, S. 3, 4; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1, S. 42, 121; P.A. 01-11, S. 3, 4; P.A. 05-235, S. 25; P.A. 06-137, S. 11; 06-196, S. 53.)

History: P.A. 76-22 amended original act to appear as Subsec. (a), added “or other satisfactory” to written proof, replaced reference to registrars of municipality wherein person resided at time of conviction with “the admitting official before whom he presents his qualifications to be admitted as an elector” and added Subsec. (b) re required notifications regarding restoration of electoral rights; P.A. 96-207 added new Subsec. (c) requiring the Judicial Department, the Commissioner of Correction and the Board of Parole to establish procedures re the right to have electoral privileges restored, effective January 1, 1997; June Sp. Sess. P.A. 98-1 made a technical change in Subsec. (c), effective June 24, 1998; P.A. 01-11 amended Subsec. (a) by adding provisions re committal to confinement and eliminating requirement that person be discharged from probation before electoral privileges restored, added new Subsec. (b) re procedures upon release of a person from confinement, redesignated former Subsecs. (b) and (c) as Subsecs. (c) and (d), amended Subsec. (d) by eliminating requirement that Judicial Department and Board of Parole also establish procedures and adding provisions re committal to custody and sentence requiring Office of Adult Probation to inform persons on probation of their right to become electors, added Subsec. (e) requiring Commissioner of Correction to transmit a monthly list to Secretary of the State, and made technical changes for purposes of gender neutrality, effective January 1, 2002; P.A. 05-235 amended Subsec. (b) to prohibit admitting official from requiring person to submit document from Commissioner of Correction to prove discharge, effective July 1, 2005; P.A. 06-137 amended Subsec. (a) to eliminate requirement to submit written or other proof satisfactory to the admitting official before whom a convicted person presents his or her qualifications to be admitted as an elector and to make technical changes, and amended Subsec. (b) to eliminate requirements re submitting to an admitting official a document or other satisfactory proof that a convicted person has been released from confinement and, if applicable, discharged from parole and to make technical changes, effective June 6, 2006; P.A. 06-196 made a technical change in Subsec. (e), effective June 7, 2006.

Sec. 9-56. Application for enrollment by unaffiliated elector. Except as otherwise provided in the case of an elector whose name has not been placed on or has been removed from the enrollment list under section 9-59, 9-60, 9-61 or 9-62, any elector not enrolled on any enrollment list may at any time make a written and signed application for enrollment to the registrars of voters on an application form for admission as an elector, in accordance with the requirements of this section. The application shall be effective as of the date it is filed with the registrars of voters of the town of residence of the applicant and any person making application for enrollment in such manner shall immediately be entitled to the privileges of party enrollment unless the application for enrollment (1) is filed in person by the applicant with the registrars of voters after twelve o’clock noon on the last business day before a primary, in which case he shall be entitled to the privileges of party enrollment immediately after the primary, (2) is otherwise filed with the registrar after the fifth day before the primary, in which case he shall be entitled to the privileges of party enrollment immediately after the primary, except as provided in section 9-23a, or (3) is filed with the registrars of voters after 5:00 p.m. on the last business day before a caucus or convention, in which case he shall be entitled to the privileges of party enrollment immediately after the caucus or convention. The application shall be signed or initialed by the registrar, deputy, assistant or registrar’s clerk receiving it, or by such other personnel as such registrar or deputy may appoint for the purpose, showing the date when such application is received and, in the case of an applicant not immediately eligible under section 9-59, 9-60, 9-61 or 9-62 to the privileges accompanying enrollment in the party named in his application, the date upon which such applicant becomes so eligible. In municipalities divided into voting districts in which an enrollment session is held in each district thereof under section 9-51, application for enrollment shall be made to the registrar or assistant registrar, as the case may be, in the voting district in which such elector is entitled to vote at the time of making such application. If any registrar or assistant registrar fails to add any name to any such list on written application or adds any name to any such list except as herein provided, he shall be guilty of a class D misdemeanor.

(1949 Rev., S. 1174; 1953, S. 557d; 1957, P.A. 442, S. 7; 1967, P.A. 32; 1969, P.A. 122, S. 2; 694, S. 6; 1971, P.A. 871, S. 68; P.A. 74-29; P.A. 75-47, S. 3, 5; 75-269, S. 4; P.A. 77-244, S. 3, 4; 77-298, S. 7; P.A. 79-363, S. 34, 38; P.A. 80-483, S. 31, 186; P.A. 83-475, S. 11, 43; P.A. 84-118, S. 3, 5; P.A. 94-121, S. 29, 33; P.A. 97-67, S. 2, 9; P.A. 12-80, S. 52.)

History: 1967 act provided for filing of application in duplicate if filed by applicant and in triplicate if filed by anyone else in which later case a copy to be mailed to applicant and the other copy to the person filing the application; 1969 acts added exception to entitlement to enrollment in the case of elector whose name is automatically removed where his name appeared on a ballot label at an election only under a different party designation and added provision for registrars or deputies to appoint other personnel to participate in proceedings; 1971 act made technical changes; P.A. 74-29 added provision for either registrars or their deputies to take acknowledgment of affidavit; P.A. 75-47 substituted “admitting official” for enumerated officials and changed references to application for enrollment to accommodate use of combined form for registration and enrollment where both accomplished at same time by applicant, eliminating duplication of personal data to be furnished, effective January 1, 1976; P.A. 75-269 provided for entitlement to privileges of party enrollment immediately except where application made following session held on third Saturday before a primary in which case entitlement occurs immediately after primary or, if application made on day of caucus or convention, then entitlement follows immediately after and further, if caucus or convention to be held prior to next enrollment session separate lists will be prepared, by party, before the day of caucus or convention; P.A. 77-244 incorporated by cross reference provisions for preregistration and pre-enrollment of seventeen-year-olds; P.A. 77-298 changed reference to enrollment session held on “third Saturday” to “fourteenth day” before primary; P.A. 79-363 and P.A. 80-483 made technical changes; P.A. 83-475 amended section to permit special assistant registrars to take acknowledgments in applications for enrollment and clarify that party membership attaches as of date of execution of application; P.A. 84-118 changed time limit for enrollment from fourteenth day to noon of last business day before primary; P.A. 94-121 required application for enrollment to be “on an application form for admission as an elector” and to be effective as of date filed with registrars of town of applicant’s residence instead of date of execution and repealed requirements that enrollment application include an affidavit and be made in duplicate or triplicate, that form of application be prescribed by secretary of the state and that certain applicants state specified information in applications, effective January 1, 1995; P.A. 97-67 inserted Subdiv. indicators, applied Subdiv. (1) to applications filed in person by applicant, added Subdiv. (2) re applications filed with registrar after fifth day before primary and amended Subdiv. (3) by substituting “after 5:00 p.m. on the last business day before a caucus or convention” for “on the day of a caucus or convention”, effective July 1, 1997; P.A. 12-80 replaced penalty of a fine of not more than $200 or imprisonment of not more than 30 days or both with a class D misdemeanor.

Cited. 144 C. 1.

Sec. 9-57. Application for enrollment by new elector at time of admission. Attachment of party privileges. Notwithstanding the provisions of any special act or charter to the contrary, whenever any person makes application for admission as an elector in person to an admitting official, he may, on an application for admission as an elector, make application for enrollment on the list of the political party of his preference. Any such elector who has so applied for enrollment shall, upon acquisition of electoral privileges, immediately be entitled to all the privileges of enrollment in the party named in his application, unless (1) he ceases to be an elector in the town or voting district in which he is entitled to vote, as the case may be, (2) he makes application for erasure or transfer or enrollment on the list of another party in accordance with the provisions of section 9-59, (3) he files his application for enrollment with the registrars of voters of his town of residence after twelve o’clock noon on the last business day before a primary, in which case he shall be entitled to the privileges of party enrollment immediately after the primary, or (4) he files his application for enrollment with the registrars of voters of his town of residence on the day of a caucus or convention, in which case he shall be entitled to the privileges of party enrollment immediately after the caucus or convention. The registrars of voters or assistant registrars shall add the names of all persons making such application to the enrollment list or supplementary enrollment list of the political party of each such applicant’s preference, provided, if a caucus or convention is to be held, such registrars or assistant registrars shall prepare separate lists of such names according to party, on the day before such caucus or convention.

(1949 Rev., S. 1183; 1953, June, 1955, S. 558d; November, 1955, S. N41; 1957, P.A. 442, S. 8; 1967, P.A. 857, S. 2; P.A. 75-47, S. 4, 5; 75-269, S. 5; P.A. 76-128, S. 9, 11; P.A. 77-298, S. 8; P.A. 78-153, S. 6, 32; P.A. 79-357, S. 4; 79-363, S. 35, 38; P.A. 84-118, S. 4, 5; P.A. 97-67, S. 4, 9.)

History: 1967 act added reference to other personnel appointed by registrar or deputy; P.A. 75-47 restated provisions; P.A. 75-269 specified when entitlement to party privileges begins after a primary; P.A. 76-128 added proviso re immediate entitlement to party privileges; P.A. 77-298 restated provisions and replaced “third Saturday” before primary with “fourteenth day” before primary as key date re party privileges; P.A. 78-153 made slight changes in wording; P.A. 79-357 specified that those who attain residence qualification are entitled to immediate privileges in proviso; P.A. 79-363 made technical correction; P.A. 84-118 changed time limit for enrollment from fourteenth day to noon of last business day before primary, deleting obsolete proviso re enrollment of those who qualify after fourteenth day before primary; P.A. 97-67 applied section to applications in person, deleted reference to Secs. 9-12, 9-20, 9-23a and 9-56 re applications, deleted provision re elector’s oath, provided that applicant is entitled to enrollment privileges immediately upon acquisition of electoral privileges instead of from time of enrollment application, inserted Subdiv. indicators, deleted reference to Sec. 9-56 in Subdiv. (2), amended Subdiv. (3) by inserting “with the registrars of voters of his town of residence”, added Subdiv. (4) re filing on day of caucus or convention, and rearranged provisions, effective July 1, 1997.

See Sec. 9-23a re offer of application for enrollment to elector and attachment of party privileges.

See Sec. 9-55a re compensation of registrars, clerks and other personnel.

Sec. 9-67. Party affiliation of electors of boroughs. Any provision of the general statutes to the contrary notwithstanding, any elector of a borough may, in connection with any borough election, enroll in, be affiliated with, be a candidate for nomination or election of, or in any other manner participate in the affairs of, a political party or organization which names candidates for borough offices, despite his participation in any manner, in connection with any state, town or city election, in the affairs of any political party or organization. Such participation, in connection with any borough election, shall not affect the right of any such elector to participate, in connection with any state, town or city election, in the affairs of any other single political party or organization. The provisions of sections 9-51 to 9-67, inclusive, regulating party affiliation of electors shall apply to the intraborough political activities of any such elector.

(1949 Rev., S. 1189; 1953, S. 567d.)

Sec. 9-175. Presidential and vice presidential electors. Write-in candidates and ballots. (a) The electors in the several towns in the state, at the state election in 1964, and quadrennially thereafter, shall elect electors of President and Vice President of the United States, not exceeding in number the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state is then entitled in the Congress of the United States. Voting shall be conducted and the result declared, and the returns thereof made, as is provided in respect to state elections. The Secretary of the State shall, on or before the first Monday of October of the year in which such presidential electors are to be elected, transmit blank forms to the several town clerks for the return of the votes; and the lists and returns of the votes shall be made out, certified and directed according to such forms. When an election is to be held for the choice of presidential electors, if any political party has nominated candidates for President and Vice President of the United States, and presidential electors to vote for such presidential and vice presidential candidates have been nominated by a political convention of such party in this state, or in such other manner as entitles the names of such electors to be placed upon the official ballots to be used in such election, the Secretary of the State and any other official charged with the preparation of official ballots to be used in such election, in lieu of placing the names of such presidential electors on such official ballots, shall place on such official ballots a space with the words “Presidential electors for (here insert the last name of the candidate for President, the word ‘and’ and the last name of the candidate for Vice President)”; and a vote cast therefor shall be counted, and shall be in all respects effective, as a vote for each of the presidential electors representing such candidates for President and Vice President.

(b) In the case of a write-in candidate for President of the United States, such candidate may register his candidacy with the Secretary of the State by submitting his name and the names of a vice presidential candidate and candidates for the office of elector in a number not exceeding the whole number of electors to which the state is then entitled. Such registration shall be on a form prescribed by the Secretary of the State, which form shall include a statement of consent to being a candidate by each proposed candidate for elector and by the candidate for Vice President. Such registration shall not include a designation of political party. A candidate for President may register at any time after January first of the election year and not later than four o’clock p.m. on the fourteenth day preceding the election at which the offices of presidential elector and vice presidential elector are being contested. If a candidate has so registered, a vote may be cast by write-in ballot for such candidate by writing in the last name of the candidate for President and the last name of the candidate for Vice President or only the last name of the candidate for President; such write-in ballot shall be counted, and shall be in all respects effective, as a vote for each of the presidential electors representing such candidates for President and Vice President. No person nominated for the office of President, Vice President, or presidential elector by a major or minor party or by nominating petition shall register as a write-in candidate for such office under the provisions of this section and any such registration of a write-in candidacy filed by such a person shall be void.

(1949 Rev., S. 1043, 1103; 1953, S. 658d; 1961, P.A. 374, S. 1; P.A. 77-82, S. 1; P.A. 83-475, S. 17, 43.)

History: 1961 act made mandatory rather than directory the use of “Presidential electors for … and …” rather than listing the electors by name; P.A. 77-82 added new Subsec. (b) re registration of a write-in candidate for president; P.A. 83-475 changed “end of the business day” to four o’clock p.m. and added prohibition against person nominated for office of president, vice president or presidential elector registering for same office as a write-in candidate.

Subsec. (a):

Electors placed on ballot by Secretary of the State must be those pledged to vote for the candidates nominated by their national political party. 254 C. 789.

Sec. 9-176. Meeting of presidential electors. The presidential electors shall meet at the office of the Secretary of the State at twelve o’clock, noon, on the first Monday after the second Wednesday of the December following their election and, as required by the Constitution and laws of the United States, shall cast their ballots for President and Vice President. Each such elector shall cast his ballots for the candidates under whose names he ran on the official election ballot, as provided in section 9-175. If any such elector is absent or if there is a vacancy in the electoral college for any cause, the electors present shall, before voting for President and Vice President, elect by ballot an elector to fill such vacancy, and the person so chosen shall be a presidential elector, shall perform the duties of such office and shall cast his ballots for the candidates to whom the elector he is replacing was pledged.

(1949 Rev., S. 1104; 1953, S. 659d; 1961, P.A. 374, S. 2.)

History: 1961 act required presidential elector or his replacement to vote for candidates under whose names he ran.

Chosen electors are required to vote for the candidates nominated by their national political party. 254 C. 789.

Sec. 9-177. Compensation of presidential electors. Each elector of President and Vice President of the United States shall receive ten dollars a day when attending upon the duties of his appointment, for which the Comptroller, on presentation to him of the certificate of the chairman of such electors, shall draw an order on the Treasurer.

(1949 Rev., S. 3596.)

Sec. 9-355. Official neglect or fraud. Any person who, without reasonable cause, neglects to perform any of the duties required of him by the laws relating to elections or primaries and for which neglect no other punishment is provided, and any person who is guilty of fraud in the performance of any such duty, and any person who makes any unlawful alteration in any list required by law, shall be fined not more than three hundred dollars or be imprisoned not more than one year or be both fined and imprisoned. Any official who is convicted of fraud in the performance of any duty imposed upon him by any law relating to the registration or admission of electors or to the conduct of any election shall be disfranchised. Any public officer or any election official upon whom any duty is imposed by part I of chapter 147 and sections 9-308 to 9-311, inclusive, who wilfully omits or neglects to perform any such duty or does any act prohibited therein for which punishment is not otherwise provided shall be guilty of a class E felony.

(1949 Rev., S. 1121, 1217; 1953, S. 832d; P.A. 80-432, S. 1; P.A. 13-258, S. 21.)

History: P.A. 80-432 added application to primaries; P.A. 13-258 changed penalty from fine of not more than $2,000 and imprisonment of not more than 3 years to class E felony.

Registrars failing to make lists are subject hereto. 64 C. 160. Implied that certificate is lawful authority for holding person, though no express provision in section. 140 C. 496.

Sec. 9-366. Interference with electors in voting. Any person who induces or attempts to induce any elector to write, paste or otherwise place, on a ballot, or a table or booth used for voting, any name, sign or device of any kind, as a distinguishing mark by which to indicate to another how such elector voted, or enters into or attempts to form any agreement or conspiracy with any person to induce or attempt to induce electors or any elector to so place any distinguishing mark on such ballot, table or booth, or attempts to induce any elector to do anything with a view to enabling another person to see or know for what persons or any of them such elector votes, or enters into or attempts to form any agreement or conspiracy to induce any elector to do any act for the purpose of enabling another person or persons to see or know for what person or persons such elector votes, or attempts to induce any person to place himself or herself in such position, or to do any other act for the purpose of enabling him or her to see or know for what candidates any elector other than himself or herself votes, or himself or herself attempts to get in such position to do any act so that he or she will be enabled to see or know how any elector other than himself or herself votes, or does any act which invades or interferes with the secrecy of the voting or causes the same to be invaded or interfered with, shall be guilty of a class D felony.

(1949 Rev., S. 1219; 1953, S. 843d; P.A. 87-382, S. 37, 55; P.A. 11-20, S. 1; P.A. 12-193, S. 5.)

History: P.A. 87-382 deleted references to “ticket”; pursuant to P.A. 11-20, “machine” was changed editorially by the Revisors to “tabulator”, effective May 24, 2011; P.A. 12-193 changed “write-in ballot” to “ballot”, replaced provision re voting tabulator with provisions re table or booth, changed penalty from imprisonment of not more than 5 years to a class D felony and made technical changes, effective July 1, 2012.


Now that you are thoroughly cross-eyed from looking through all that…have a look at the relevant portions of the U.S. Constitution:

Article II deals with the selection and powers of the Executive branch of our government, i.e. the President of the United States.

Article II (Article 2 – Executive)

Section 1

1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

3: The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President.8

4: The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

5: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

6: In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office,9 the Same shall devolve on the VicePresident, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

7: The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

8: Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation:—“I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2

1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.

3: The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

Section 3

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4

The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

The 12th Amendment, ratified in 1804, created the Electoral College.

[Article XII] (Amendment 12 – Election of President)

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;—The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;—The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.14  —The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

The 20th Amendment sets the dates at which the terms of office for our elected officials start and end.

Article [XX] (Amendment 20 – Terms of President, Vice President, Members of Congress: Presidential Vacancy)

1: The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.   affects 5

2: The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.   affects 5

3: If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.   affects 9    affects 14

4: The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.   affects 9

5: Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.

6: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

The 22nd Amendment sets term limits for Presidents, so that they can’t keep being elected as many times as they wish to run for office.

Amendment XXII (Amendment 22 – Presidential Tenure)

1: No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

2: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states by the Congress.

The 23rd Amendment gave the District of Columbia its 3 Electors. That was only fair.

Amendment XXIII (Amendment 23 – Presidential Electors for the District of Columbia)

1: The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

2: The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

The 25th Amendment formally decrees that if something incapacitates the President, the Vice President shall become the President.

Amendment XXV  (Amendment 25 – Presidential Vacancy, Disability, and Inability)

1: In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

2: Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

3: Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

4: Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.


Well, that’s it for now.

If anyone is interested in learning more about this topic, I recommend this book:

James A. Michener, PRESIDENTIAL LOTTERY: THE RECKLESS GAMBLE IN OUR ELECTORAL SYSTEM, New York: The Dial Press and Random House, L.L.C., 1969.

In it, he does in fact tell the tale of having to recruit Electors at the last minute due to a snowstorm.

He also explains the system, cites the relevant portions of the U.S. Constitution plus Amendments, and suggests alternatives to the Electoral College system, complete with logical reasons for each.

It’s an excellent, well-written, well-researched book, and leaves the reader with plenty to think about.

He recommends abolishing the Electoral College system.

Meanwhile, we’re stuck with this system, so I recommend understanding it. That means educating oneself to do so, which is why I did all this work.

A blog post will only get the reader so far. Do more reading!

If you wish to contact the Electors and ask them to vote as you wish them to vote, that is legal and possible.

Here is the link: http://asktheelectors.org/

Be advised, however, that they are currently being overwhelmed with correspondence and may not read what you write.

The current population of the United States is 324 million people.

Granted, many are under 18 years of age, which is the legal voting age, and not all adults are registered to vote.

But…that still leaves millions upon millions of people who are eligible to have their say.

Imagine receiving more e-mails than you can hope to read, let alone reply to.

Then send one anyway if you wish, because that is your legal right.

Save

Save

Electoral College, This is Not a Game. Go Rogue. Put Hillary in the White House.

The popular vote in our November 8th, 2016 Presidential election went to Hillary Rodham Clinton.

That, however, does not matter one whit.

The Electoral College vote tally – a mere guesstimation and/or prediction of what its members-for-a-day will actually do on December 19th – gave it to Donald J. Trump.

Trump is an orange Nazi fascist misogynist who surrounds himself with idiots and sycophants.

He does this because he has a weak ego with no impulse control, as his Twitter account shows.

It is amazing (perhaps that should be changed to “doubtful”) that he accomplishes anything of value, nor anything at all, given that he can’t leave his hand-held device alone and focus on the job of organizing an administration AND learning how to do the job he sought. The presidency of the United States is a far cry from running a corporation and starring in a reality show.

The President-Elect Is an Internet Troll

He knows almost nothing about the U.S. Constitution, a document which he will be required to swear an oath to defend and uphold in order to take office as President of the United States.

He shows little interest in learning about it, about what it means, nor about how it all works. It’s a complex document. No matter; he can just ask someone – one of his appointed sycophants. Or look it up online.

Donald Trump Has Broken the Constitution

He has foisted an idiot and bigot named Mike Pence on us all.

Pence has gone on national television since the election and said in an interview that he has every right to spout off fictitious data just because he likes what it says.

ABC’s George Stephanopoulos asks Mike Pence about false voter claim

Not only that, but Pence is the ultimate pot calling the kettle black about e-mails.

After blasting Clinton, Pence in an email battle of his own

Trump doesn’t worry about guarding the state secrets he is already being told about. He has been seen holding confidential documents on the outside of a leather folder, his arm carelessly across the middle.

He has surrounded himself with individuals who treat women like commodities. What else would one expect from a beauty pageant owner, though?! Bannon the wife-beater is just one of them. No matter that the case never went forward – his wife outed him, and he can’t take that back.

Donald Trump’s Campaign Chief, Stephen Bannon, Faced Domestic Violence Charges in 1996

He has already begun to cooperate with Wall Street banksters, a direct violation of the hopes of his own voters (no surprise there), who are already expressing buyer’s remorse. He has even added one to his team, as Secretary of the Treasury.

Bank Owned by Trump’s Top Treasury Pick Foreclosed on a 90-Year-Old Over 27 Cents

He doesn’t understand what it means to be a public citizen, which is what a holder of a national office is. It means that he must take it without complaint when he is criticized, and that he is no longer merely entitled to his own opinion. All views must be backed up by verifiable facts.

He has already begun to communicate and meet with foreign leaders, and in so doing, has comingled attendees from his businesses. We can expect more trouble over conflicts of interest. Not only that, but he has not studied our track records of communications with these leaders and nations He is not up to date on what has been said and done thus far. He is winging it, and that is dangerous.

Obama’s, Bush’s top ethics lawyers: Trump must sell businesses or Electoral College must reject him

The Array of Conflicts of Interest Facing the Trump Presidency

He has already made significant moves to quash transparency and freedoms of speech, the media, the right to peaceably assemble, and more.

Trump Summons TV Figures for Private Meeting, and Lets Them Have It

I’m told his name is “Fart” in German. How eminently suitable that is.

I have been reading James A Michener’s book on the Electoral College.

Here is the bibliographical data on it:

James A. Michener, PRESIDENTIAL LOTTERY: THE RECKLESS GAMBLE IN OUR ELECTORAL SYSTEM, New York: The Dial Press and Random House, L.L.C., 1969.

He served in it as a Pennsylvania Democrat in 1968.

His conclusion was that Electors may in fact go rogue and vote in whomever they deem most fit to hold the highest office in our nation, regardless of the laws of individual states that attempt to prohibit or inhibit them from doing so. Yes, some states will impose fines on Electors for voting in contravention of any statutory pledge or requirement that they cast their ballots for the candidate that most popular votes chose. But once cast, there is nothing that can be done to take an Electoral Vote back. It’s done.

The vote, if inconclusive, can go to the incoming House of Representatives.

Our incoming group is heavily GOP – hence my urging that the Electoral College take care of this problem definitively on December 19th.

Yes, we ought to get rid of this insane, flawed system and elect our Presidents via the popular vote. But we certainly won’t get rid of the Electoral College system in time to salvage our current situation, so the best thing that can happen is for the people who are to serve in it for a day to go rogue, any potential personal consequences be damned, and vote Hillary and Caine in.

On December 19th, if the members-for-a-day of our nation’s Electoral College understand what they ought to understand, they will go rogue and keep Trump out of the White House, and Pence too. They must understand that an election is a responsibility, not a game. They must play it for keeps. Simply keeping Trump out will not solve the looming crisis.

At least one of these Electors has already said he won’t cast his vote for Trump.

Why I Will Not Cast My Electoral Vote for Donald Trump

I just hope that there are enough people like him to have the sense to not only go rogue in the Electoral College, but to see that this is not a game and to vote Hillary in, because Mike Pence is another horrific, fascist disaster.

Here are some of the pieces on the Electoral College that have been published in the past few weeks surrounding our latest and most disgraceful of presidential elections:

The electoral college isn’t a real place. But someone has to answer all the angry phone calls these days.

Three common arguments for preserving the Electoral College – and why they’re wrong

There are plenty more.

This is not a simple matter of being disappointed over a loss to a Republican. I’ve had experience with that, and been upset, but not sick to my stomach, not losing all hope for the future of our nation, our democracy, and our national dignity. This is different.

This is a catastrophe for individual liberty, for basic freedoms, and for the pursuit of happiness.

A century’s worth of great laws are under threat because of populist discontent and stalled growth. I’m thinking about the right to control one’s fertility, which is both about personal health and personal economics.

A Trump/Pence Administration is a Threat to Women, Science and Human Rights

I’m thinking about atheism. Some idiots put “under God” into our Pledge to the Flag in 1954 where there was none before. I don’t say those words when I recite the pledge of allegiance, and I don’t have to. I want it to stay that way.

I’m thinking about what happened, other than popular discontent. Sexism is a part of it. It demanded and required utter flawlessness of character from a politician – an unreasonable, unrealistic fairy tale of a demand if ever there was one. A woman should not have to meet a higher standard than a man in order to hold the highest office in our nation, and a woman will never meet that standard. She ought to be in that office nonetheless.

It wasn’t just ‘fake news’ presenting a fake Hillary Clinton

With the election and its mania over, we are now finding out some alarming, though not astonishing, things about the news that was available before it was over. Fake news was being served up – lies to slant the results of the election. Climate change data was skewed with lies by none other than the Goebbels-reincarnate Steve Bannon on his hijacked monster of a site, Breitbart. I have a difficult time believing that Andrew Breitbart, its dead founder, would be pleased.

News Report on Global Temperatures Is Wrong, Scientists Say

Frightened by Donald Trump? You don’t know the half of it

Donald Trump’s infrastructure plan is one big scam

What does Trump know or care about climate change, ecosystems collapse, diminishing soil nutrient capacity for growing crops, international law and diplomacy, handling national secrets, and so on? Nowhere near enough, and he can’t just Google it or rely on the knowledge of others. That data needs to already be in his brain to be of use.

A president with a limited attention span and a disdain for details and data is a liability.

Catering to big business interests at the expense of the ecosystem will lead to collapse.

Here I am, an educated person with a law degree (from a school that ranks significantly higher than Pence’s, I might add!), citing articles and research to back my statements. I make no apology for doing so. Many might call me elitist for doing so. I call it due diligence.

We as a society have encouraged growth for the sake of growth in a blatant and callous disregard for the fact that the Earth’s bank account of resources is both real and finite.

Tangible resources still exist – water, food, soil with crop-growing nutrients, mineral deposits, land – but they are dwindling in the face of continuous and rapid human population growth.

Few people are even willing to look at this data, let alone read or hear about it.

They prefer inane distractions, they think only a few weeks ahead at most, and they don’t care about anything other than their immediate comfort.

There is a word to describe them: populists.

We are faced with populist discontent.

An appetite for more, more, more of everything – human reproduction and resource consumption – has led to more, more, more growth, and it has been fed. Now we have 324 million human beings living in the United States.

This is lethal to themselves and to others.

Those who function this way vastly outnumber the thinking members of the population who look at long-term situations, plan ahead, and face the data no matter what it reveals.

This is a lethal situation, and a prelude to a resource war.

No wonder I have taken to calling my country the Untied States of America.

We have come undone.

I won’t shy away from saying things that most prefer not to deal with.

This goes back to my earlier determination to be right even if that means not being popular.

I have no use for populism. I expect and require thought, research, and long-term thinking from everyone, whether that suits them or not, and I won’t stop that.

That’s why I was so determined to write my entire Nae-Née series. I would worry about getting readers later, I told myself, after I had taken care of the problem of bringing it into existence.

Vaccine - The Cull - Final Cover Illustration by Steve Palmerton

https://www.amazon.com/Vaccine-Nae-Nee-Wasnt-Enough-Nae-N%C3%A9e-ebook/dp/B013DISX2W/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8

We have the exact same situation now – the same political makeup looming ahead of us – as we faced in 1928: a Republican House, Senate, and President.

Does anyone, even the most disengaged populist, happen to remember what that led to?

I’ll tell you: excesses of one-sided, growth-heavy decision-making and legislation that favored greed on Wall Street, which collapsed our nation’s economy in October of 1929, and after that, the economies of nations around the planet.

hooverville-in-central-park-image-via-the-new-york-daily-news-archive

Hooverville in Central Park, New York City. (Image via the New York Daily News archive.)

Good times.

At least there are still people like Christiane Amanpour around, refusing to sugar-coat reality.

She is absolutely right: We ought to believe in being truthful rather than neutral.

Christiane Amanpour: 2016 Burton Benjamin Memorial Award Acceptance Speech

Go rogue, Electoral College.

Tip the political balance out of that scenario with Hillary before it’s too late.

Even if we must endure a term of inertia, that would be far better than total meltdown.

We Know What You Are. It’s Been Done Before, Many Times.

The developments at the North Dakota protesters’ site are freaking me out for an eerie reason: after reading book after book after article after article after statute after whatever other research, I wrote my Nae-Née series, and the bad guys – the Farmers (banksters + hedge fundsters + corporatists) – treated the rest of the world like a crop to use as they pleased or a weed in their way…and now reality is playing out as in my books.

Vaccine - The Cull - Final Cover Illustration by Steve Palmerton

That’s not the only place that “developments” – such a blah, insufficient word – are giving me such thoughts.

I have scared myself. What bothers me is that not enough people see the whole picture, which those books show.

https://www.facebook.com/NaeNeeBirthControlInfalliblewithNanites/

If anyone cares to know more, I post articles several times a day to this page, and am always hoping for more Likes on it. I feel as though Trump is the lead monster in my books…though I never name the president. It’s always a person who is given some sort of vague physical description. I don’t want to simply describe the real news. It’s a fictitious series, after all.

Here’s another one:

We’re Tracking Post-Election Acts of Hate in Texas

Kristallnacht, anyone?

Even in cyber-form, it’s already starting.

bill-of-rights-miss-me

If you don’t miss the Bill of Rights yet, you will soon.

For those who now imagine that it is okay to bully, harass, intimidate, threaten, vandalize, or assault, you’re mistaken.

We know what you are.

You are nothing special, nothing original, and no one with the right to do any of that.

You lack talent or motivation to better yourselves, so you seek to cut down those who have those qualities.

It’s been done before, many times.

The Burning Times is one instance. One woman was left alive in every village of Europe in an effort to stamp out the ancient Nature worship that venerated the ecosystem and focused on goddesses. The price was that herbal knowledge, which women held, was lost, as were skilled midwives. They were replaced with idiots who fed patients toadstools (that’s toad shit, in case you don’t realize it).

Pogroms cropped up from time to time in a monstrous effort at genocide against Jews.

And then there were the Nazis with their jackboots, brown shirts, black leather coats with lightning bolts for a pair of “S” letters who made Jews wear yellow stars, homosexuals were pink triangles, and Romani people wear…well, just look at this chart.

dachau-badges-poster

Dachau Badges Poster.

How long before reports of people who are not white being beaten, raped, murdered, tortured, and otherwise molested become regular occurrences?!

justice-will-not-be-served-until-by-benjamin-franklin

We should not be stuck with a democracy that has committed suicide just because a group – white males – is angry that other groups – women, blacks, all other races and ethnic groups, LGBTs, fill-in-the-blank-with-other-groups – have been able to make ourselves heard and to successfully insist upon having full rights and voices in our government, our society, our intellectual life, and so on.

I have no sympathy for angry individuals who cannot or will not study and work their way to a good life for themselves, but who instead buy mountains of junk to distract themselves from their dissatisfaction, or attend sports matches for that same purpose, or fill their brains with irrelevant nonsense from the most mundane, populist shows on television while learning nothing of value or use – only having mindless, fleeting fun in the process…and then get angry at those of us who work, study, and try to improve the world, calling us elitists.

People who do that burn books, and other people, and they are worthless criminals.

Anyone who now imagines it okay or safe or in any way acceptable to commit crimes of any kind against others is mistaken.

Anyone who seeks to silence and terrorize is not only mistaken but also a criminal, and the reign of terror will not last.

When it ends, and it always ends, it is the terrorists who shall be terrified, for they will remember what they did to others.

Talk of diversity and inclusiveness was not mere social engineering, meant to be a feel-good, friendly inducement to good behavior. It was serious business, meant to keep the sentiments that led to Burning Times, pogroms, Hitler’s monstrosities, and anything else of that sort from recurring.

I wonder if any of the individuals who are painting swastikas, drawing cartoons of walls, spewing black smog on liberals, or even jeering at them – as if this election was a game rather than serious business with an outcome that matters more than most elections have – recall what happens after all the acts of hate have been stopped.

I wonder, because they always end up being stopped.

When the acts of hate get stopped, other things happen.

Remember the Nuremberg Trials?

We now have something called an International Criminal Court. It’s in The Hague, which is in The Netherlands.

I studied it for the third novel in my Nae-Née series (cover art in production).

Don’t think for a moment that, just because the U.S. Senate refuses to ratify it, that it can’t be applied to Americans.

It can.

All that Court has to demonstrate is a failure of our own legal system, and it will have us.

 

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We Had a Coup D’État in 1963.

On November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was shot to death as he rode through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas.

On that much, we can all agree.

We can also agree that, as a sitting President of the United States, it was an assassination.

And that it was a murder.

After all, who ever heard of an assassination that wasn’t?

Shall we call it an execution also?

Regardless, the President was shot through the throat, the back, and in the head, and he was dead.

Texas Governor John Connolly was shot, also, but not fatally.

Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy, the First Lady, understandably freaked out when she saw her husband’s head blown apart, his body sagging into her lap, and climbed out the back of the vehicle toward the Secret Service agents who were with the vehicle behind her.

Wait…what? They were with the vehicle behind her, not the one that she and the president were in? Odd…odder still is the lack of the glass cover on their vehicle.

There’s the coup d’état. It starts to show up when you realize that the shooting was too easy.

Even odder is the fact that the route of the motorcade was changed after the publication of the Dallas Morning News. Thus, the public expected to have to line the street that went between the pair of Dealey Plaza buildings rather than north of them, past that now infamous grassy knoll.

You know the one – the Texas School Book Depository building overlooks it all. That’s where Lee Harvey Oswald had a job. The place is now a museum.

There are other oddities to tally up, such as the open windows all along the route. Windows are supposed to be closed whenever the President of the United States rides by. If you have ever seen the 1993 movie In the Line of Fire, you would also expect that the Secret Service would have removed every mailbox along the prospective route and gone down the water drainage passageways under the street to check for incendiary devices, after which they would have put tape that says “U.S. Secret Service” on each cover.

So why not go to all that trouble in 1963 – at least have a glass shield around JFK?

Answer: someone, or many someones, wanted him dead.

Who had motive? Who benefited by his death?

Lots of people did, that’s who.

This summer, I started reading about it, quite by accident.

Here is a list of the books that I read:

ON THE TRAIL OF THE ASSASSINS: ONE MAN’S QUEST TO SOLVE THE MURDER OF PRESIDENT KENNEDY, by Jim Garrison, 1988.

THE IDLE WARRIORS, by Kerry Thornley, written in 1961, published in 1991.

DR. MARY’S MONKEY: HOW THE UNSOLVED MURDER OF A DOCTOR, A SECRET LABORATORY IN NEW ORLEANS AND A CANCER-CAUSING MONKEY VIRUSES ARE LINKED TO LEE HARVEY OSWALD, THE JFK ASSASSINATION AND EMERGING GLOBAL EPIDEMICS, by Edward T. Haslam, 2007.

ME & LEE: HOW I CAME TO KNOW, LOVE AND LOSE LEE HARVEY OSWALD, by Judyth Vary Baker, 2010.

DAVID FERRIE: MAFIA PILOT, PARTICIPANT IN ANTI-CASTRO BIOWEAPON PLOT, FRIEND OF LEE HARVEY OSWALD AND KEY TO THE JFK ASSASSINATION, by Judyth Vary Baker, 2013.

I was reading book after book in the pile of research I had compiled in order to complete my dystopian series on human overpopulation and ecosystems collapse, called Nae-Née. (Yes, there I go, mentioning it again. Well, I do have a duty to promote it after going to all the trouble of writing it, so I shall continue to do that.)

Final Nae-Nee Cover Art - Katelyn M. Gagnon - Lulu Publishing Format

The series deals with, among other things, the military-industrial complex, at thing that President Dwight D. Eisenhower mentioned near the end of his presidency, and a thing that fuels much of the U.S. economy.

I came to the assassination, as I said, by accident. This was because I was reading about bioweapons and naturally-occurring plagues, and virus hunters (who are doctors with special training and interests).

The first book that led me in that direction was the last of that category of the books I had collected on the subject. It was by Edward T. Haslam, published in 2007, entitled Dr. Mary’s Monkey: How the Unsolved Murder of a Doctor, a Secret Laboratory in New Orleans and a Cancer-Causing Monkey Viruses are Linked to Lee Harvey Oswald, the JFK Assassination and Emerging Global Epidemics. How’s that for a long title?

I never expected to get sidetracked with a fascination about the assassination of John F. Kennedy by reading them.

But I did.

Accordingly, I finished reading that book, which has been alternately taken seriously and condemned as conspiracy theory, acquired a copy of Oliver Stone’s 1991 movie JFK, starring Kevin Costner as Jim Garrison, the District of Orleans Parish, Louisiana, with a cameo appearance by Judge Garrison himself playing Chief Justice Earl Warren, and watched it.

Wow. I was hooked.

But I had to finish my book-writing project. I’m an author who had assigned myself a project; I couldn’t just put it aside, forget the deadline I had set for the conclusion of the project, and get back to it later. No…I was just as obsessed with that as I found myself with reading about the JFK assassination.

I contented myself with acquiring a CD of the John Williams music of the JFK movie and resumed work on the final Nae-Nee novel, which I copyrighted on August 24, 2016 – just as I had intended to do.

That done, I focused on getting cover art for the book, a crucial detail but one that promised not to occupy large chunks of my time.

Back to my fascination with the assassination!

I went out into the sunshine, having completed my obsessive and incessant reading of self-assigned work material followed by rushing to the computer to integrate the data into the plot of my novel. That had been making me short of breath and a bit anxious, plus in serious need of exercise and human interaction.

Free at last of my self-imposed graduate study of a project, my mind could not stop reading true stories and studying just yet. I was in the groove of…work. (I’m not out of it yet, but I’m going to read fiction soon and relax.) I’m easing myself out by giving in to a strong pull of fascination, induced by a sense that I have found the right sources, sources which are loaded with carefully vetted facts.

I went up the road to my local Barnes & Noble bookstore, and browsed, having no clear idea when I entered as to what I wanted. I was antsy, distracted, and looking for a way to relax. (Shopping for clothing makes me irritable, so that was out. Fashions for women make me irritable due to their lack of stability and continuous access to loose, comfortable-yet-attractive styles with huge, deep pockets in EVERY dress, skirt, or pair of pants or shorts.)

After a few minutes of wandering around, I found a nice store employee at the information desk and struck up a conversation with him. He was retired from his career, and worked at the bookstore a couple of days per week. Suddenly, it had occurred to me to ask about Jim Garrison’s book, On the Trail of the Assassins: One Man’s Quest to Solve the Murder of President Kennedy, written in 1988. It was something that I had looked up online in the middle of the summer. I could not find it in the store.

“Oh, I think we have it,” the man said, and led me to the discount section! There it was, for under ten dollars. I thanked him and bought it, feeling quite delighted.

This had to be a good book, I thought to myself. After all, it was written by an attorney, and one who I had looked up on the Internet while watching that movie. We lawyers are trained to ask searching questions and follow up leads, to research every angle carefully, tie up loose ends, and look for loopholes and discrepancies.

I didn’t wait. That evening, I started reading it, and was not disappointed.

Garrison had ordered the 26-volume Warren Commission Report and read it through very carefully in the 1960s. He read them, and realized that the data does not support the conclusions in it. That, of course, was no accident in a cover-up effort.

The Warren Commission included a bankster, John McCloy, who was closely connected with Texas businessmen who wanted Kennedy dead and who held a party to celebrate it, complete with a home movie of the murder. It also included Allen Dulles, the former – and fired by JFK – director of the CIA. His job was to steer the Warren Commission away from damning evidence.

Garrison found the newspaper that showed the original planned motorcade route. He found leads that were not followed up. He found forensic ballistic evidence that did not add up, and much of it had been blatantly tampered with. He found testimony that did not jive with that of most witnesses, and was therefore placed separately from the rest in the report. He found, after meeting with at least one witness, that some signatures had been forged as he was shown her actual signature. He found that many other witnesses had died, killed themselves, been murdered, or disappeared altogether.

Abe Zapruder, a local business owner, had left his office to film the assassination. He sold one copy for $25,000 and gave the money to the widow of a slain Dallas police office, one J.D. Tippet, who was left to raise her children alone. Nice guy. He cried when he watched the film, which he was rushed to develop the afternoon of the shootings.

Jim Garrison obtained that film from 1 Times Square, New York City. I was surprised he was able to access it, and that it hadn’t vanished, but he got it…and he made 100 copies before returning it. He shipped them to universities all over the nation, just to make it more difficult to conceal the only moving images of the murder.

As I said, I was hooked.

The book was an account of Garrison’s effort to prosecute someone (he settled on Clay Shaw, who ran the International Trade Mart of New Orleans) for Kennedy’s murder. Clay Shaw was acquitted in just one hour, but not before Garrison succeeded in presenting all of the data he had uncovered, including the Zapruder film. Years later, after his death, Clay Shaw was revealed to have been what Jim Garrison charged him with being: a C.I.A. agent. He was also involved in an international fascist organization, populated by European aristocrats and businesspeople.

When I finished reading that book, I was actually disappointed that it was over.

There had to be more, but I wasn’t interested in just any book. I didn’t want one that was part of the book-mill that was more about making money than showing some glimmer of truth.

At this point, I should add that I did not actually expect to find out who killed Kennedy.

By this point, I was merely satisfied that Lee Harvey Oswald had not done the deed.

To find out exactly who had done it seemed like asking too much…though a clearer idea would have been nice.

I mean, seriously, if the C.I.A., the Mafia, and disgruntled expatriate Cubans had all participated, why would anyone ever be sure precisely who the assassins were? (Notice that I made the word “assassins” plural. That was deliberate. It was a team effort.)

True, a bunch of guys in the federal jail up on a floor level with the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository watched some of the shooters, but good luck locating them after 53 years had gone by, and I wasn’t about to investigate. I was just reading for my own sense of fascination with a measure of truth. I wanted to make up my own mind, not go on an odyssey of exploration at great expense and risk of death. If you die, you don’t get to share your research!

There are some who still insist that Lee Harvey Oswald, despite being downstairs at the time of the shooting, drinking a soda and not at all out of breath, shot JFK and Governor Connolly with a seemingly magic bullet that arced down, up, across, down, and up again (some ludicrous pattern of movement for just one bullet!) despite being a less than spectacular shot and not in the right position to fire. Oswald was not out of breath when seen drinking that soda; he wasn’t even sweating, and it was a long walk down many stairs in too short a time for him to have actually been at that window.

Those guys in the jail had all stood by the windows to watch the motorcade. Instead of a quick and pleasant view of it passing by, they had seen two pairs of guys at either end of the 6th floor of the Texas School Book Depository, each at a window. One guy in each pair was Caucasian, and the other could easily have been Cuban. They saw one guy of each pair aim a rifle at the motorcade and fire on the people in it, they saw JFK get hit, and they saw those same guys rush out of the building very shortly thereafter, get into a station wagon, and drive away – toting long, wrapped items which were long enough to be rifles.

Smoke was seen coming from behind a fence at the grassy knoll.

A parking attendant saw “hoboes” arriving. Sometime after saying so, he was found shot dead in his booth.

A witness driving past that knoll a half hour or so before the motorcade was due to go by saw both cops hanging out, making conversation, on the bridge overhead, which overlooked the approaching vehicles, and a pickup truck, driven by a guy who turned to look at her for a moment, pause to drop off a guy who carried another covered item that was the shape and size of a rifle, a guy who took off rapidly toward the grassy knoll.

The driver of that pickup truck, she realized a few days later, had been Jack Ruby.

I thought back to the movie again. A Dallas patrol car driven by Officer J.D. Tippet had been well away from the movie theater where Lee Harvey Oswald was found and arrested, and he had been murdered, shot by not one guy but two. Multiple witnesses saw it happen. The forensic ballistic evidence gathered showed that the bullets were from an automatic weapon. Lee Harvey Oswald had a revolver. To be there in time to kill Tippet, he would have had to have teleported.

JFK was shot at half past noon on that Friday. Tippet was shot 45 minutes later.

So I was done reading, and I wanted to see Jim Garrison on film. Well…on to the DVD now.

I had seen him in the JFK movie, a shadow of his former self. He was dying of lung cancer after smoking pipes for decades, and was gone the year after the movie was released. In it, he wore horn-rimmed glasses and had white hair, plus he was a frail, thin, sickly-looking guy. He must have enjoyed being in Oliver Stone’s movie and appreciated the attention his book was getting after not being taken seriously for so long, but I wanted to see him as he was when he was healthy and working.

Garrison had gone on to become a judge in New Orleans after being elected to serve as D.A. in Orleans Parish from 1961-1973. He was run out of office over false charges about bribes for illegal pinball machines, charges which failed to hold up. Garrison had prosecuted cases about those, so this was a lame effort to attack his character. However, he had not had time to campaign for re-election, so Harry Connick Sr. (yes, the father of Jr., the New Orleans musician and actor) won instead. Sr. was later chastised by U.S. Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg for failing to adequately train his assistant D.A.s after the Supreme Court kept getting murder convictions from his office to review…and finding that the defendants weren’t guilty!

But back to Garrison…I wanted to see a younger, healthy version of the man in a movie.

The Wikipedia entry on him had mentioned that he played himself in the 1987 movie The Big Easy, so I watched it. There he was! The plot included a case at the trial level. In walked Judge Jim Garrison in his robes, six feet three inches tall, twice! I was happy to have seen that…and the movie itself. I liked the movie.

But I wasn’t done yet.

Dr. Mary’s Monkey had mentioned a young woman by the name of Judyth Vary Baker.

judyth-vary-baker-circa-1963-age-20

Judyth Vary Baker, Circa 1963, Age 20.

The back of the book was full of photographs of people, letters, reports, news articles, and so on.

I looked up that book again and Amazon helpfully informed me (always trying to make more sales!) that it was often sold with a book that she had written in 2010 called Me & Lee: How I Came to Know, Love and Lose Lee Harvey Oswald.

After briefly feeling a bit like a silly groupie and not fully realizing what I was getting into, I ordered a copy. Nothing else seemed likely to address my nagging fascination.

I had looked up the autopsy photographs of Dr. Mary Stults Sherman, the oncologist who had been killed on July 21, 1964 with morbid fascination. A Google Image search had brought them up vividly. As an Aspie (person on the autism spectrum with Asperger’s), I need to see photographs to fully learn things. Dr. Mary Sherman had had her right arm disintegrated by a particle accelerator, which was why it was missing. Also missing were parts of her ribs and liver, and her eyeballs were dehydrated. The effect presented was one of severe burns.

dr-mary-s-sherman-autopsy-photograph

Dr. Mary S. Sherman – autopsy photograph.

And she hadn’t died when that happened to her! Someone else put her out of her misery with a stab through her heart.

I think it was Dr. Alton Ochsner, but that’s just an idea. The reason I thought of Ochsner is that Haslam’s book described his character in some detail, plus his business dealings. Ochsner was a decisive individual, quick, efficient, and not prone to dithering…and that was how he killed his grandson and crippled his granddaughter. He was in such a hurry to test the first version of the polio vaccine that he gave it to his own grandchildren. The damned vaccine wasn’t ready. It had live instead of dead polio virus in the serum. Ochsner’s daughter must have hated him.

The next iteration of the vaccine contained a cancer virus, which exposed millions of people in the 1950s who received it, leaving a latent threat to their health dormant in their systems, waiting to torture them in the future. The physicians who dispensed it knew this, but went ahead anyway, destroying the reputations of two women scientists who wanted to sound the alarm in the process.

The business relationships that Alton Ochsner wanted to protect and maintain involved the medical treatment of national leaders from all over Latin America. Ochsner had traveled to personally meet with them and invite them to receive any health treatments they might need at his facility in New Orleans. They came, and he prospered…until Castro took over Cuba, cutting off a significant portion of his profits. He wanted them back.

But back to Dr. Mary S. Sherman. Those who disposed of her corpse tried adding more stab marks and setting fire to it, plus hiding her car across town, to make it look like a break-in. The case was not solved.

Just to add to the effort to understand her, I looked her up on PubMed, also known as Medline (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), and found her oncology journal articles. Dr. Mary S. Sherman had been an internationally recognized cancer researcher before her death. The articles are still there:

MECHANISM OF PAIN IN OSTEOID OSTEOMAS. SHERMAN MS, MCFARLAND G Jr. South Med J. 1965 Feb;58:163-6. No abstract available. PMID: 14246937

AN UNUSUAL CHONDROBLASTOMA. WRIGHT JL, SHERMAN MS. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1964 Apr;46:567-600. No abstract available. PMID: 14131433

Influence of certain B-vitamin antimetabolites on ovulation in vitro in the frog. Rana pipiens. WRIGHT PA, FLATHERS AR, GREENWOOD HL, SHERMAN MS. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1960 Nov;105:211-2. No abstract available. PMID: 13786807

Luschka’s joint-a degenerative phenomenon. OROFINO C, SHERMAN MS, SCHECHTER D. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960 Jul;42-A:853-8. No abstract available. PMID: 13854186

Bone changes in chronic circulatory insufficiency; a histopathological study. SHERMAN MS, SELAKOVICH WG. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1957 Jul;39-A(4):892-901. No abstract available. PMID: 13438945

Hemangiomas of the musculoskeletal system. SELAKOVICH WG, SHERMAN MS. Ochsner Clin Rep. 1956 Jan;2(1):41-54. No abstract available. PMID: 13297315

A report of four proved cases of tuberculous bone or synovial infection treated with streptomycin. DOUGHERTY J, SHERMAN MS. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1955 Dec;37-A(6):1223-30. No abstract available. PMID: 13271468

Xanthomas of tendon sheaths. HANNS WH, SHERMAN MS. J La State Med Soc. 1955 Nov;107(11):453-7. No abstract available. PMID: 13271913

Bone changes following bilateral ureterosigmoidostomy. SHERMAN MS. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1953 Aug;97(2):159-61. No abstract available. PMID: 13077152

Osteoid osteoma. SHERMAN MS, CALDWELL GA. Clin Orthop. 1953;2:203-10. No abstract available. PMID: 13107101

Psoriatic arthritis; observations on the clinical, roentgenographic, and pathological changes. SHERMAN MS. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1952 Oct;34 A(4):831-52. No abstract available. PMID: 12990624

Diagnosis of hip disease in children. SHERMAN MS. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 1952 Aug;7(8):283-93. No abstract available. PMID: 12980862

The non-specificity of synovial reactions. SHERMAN MS. Bull Hosp Joint Dis. 1951 Oct;12(2):110-25. No abstract available. PMID: 14905101

Late results in Legg-Perthes disease. MINDELL ER, SHERMAN MS. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1951 Jan;33 A(1):1-23. No abstract available. PMID: 14803473

Infantile cortical hyperostosis; review of the literature and report of five cases. SHERMAN MS, HELLYER DT. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther. 1950 Feb;63(2):212-22, illust. No abstract available. PMID: 15402767

Osteomalacia. SHERMAN MS. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1950 Jan;32A(1):193-206. No abstract available. PMID: 15401734

Infantile cortical hyperostosis. SHERMAN MS. Proc Inst Med Chic. 1949 Apr 15;17(13):307. No abstract available. PMID: 18117392

Acute and chronic osteomyelitis. SHERMAN MS. Surg Clin North Am. 1949 Feb;29(1):117-31. No abstract available. PMID: 18124108

Estrogens and bone formation in the human female. SHERMAN MS. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1948 Oct;30A(4):915-30. No abstract available. PMID: 18887297

Osteoid osteoma; review of the literature and report of 30 cases. SHERMAN MS. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1947 Oct;29(4):918-30. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 20270357

Pathologic changes in gouty arthritis. SHERMAN MS. Proc Inst Med Chic. 1947 Jun 15;16(15):428. No abstract available. PMID: 20250416

Osteoid osteoma associated with changes in adjacent joint; report of two cases. SHERMAN MS. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1947 Apr;29(2):483-90. No abstract available. PMID: 20240209

The pathology of ununited fractures of the neck of the femur. SHERMAN MS, PHEMISTER DB. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1947 Jan;29(1):19-40. No abstract available. PMID: 20284683

Pathologic changes in gouty arthritis. SHERMAN MS. Arch Pathol (Chic). 1946 Dec;42(6):557-63. No abstract available. PMID: 20282127

The next iteration of the polio serum caused cancer. That was covered up, and the kill shot was administered to millions of American kids in the 1950s. A woman scientist’s career was destroyed over all this because she found out about this in 1955, after testing it. Her name was Bernice Eddy, Ph.D. The thanks she got for spotting this disaster in the making was to be transferred to an influenza study at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). But Eddy met Sarah Stewart, Ph.D. there, and the two of them worked together on Stewart’s theory that cancer is caused by viruses. She managed to prove that at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), plus discover DNA recombination.

Why do we care about all this?

We care because it was the basis of a bioweapon that was developed in New Orleans, Louisiana from 1962 to 1963. This bioweapon was a galloping, zoonotic cancer (“zoonotic” means a virus that crosses from species to species). What was to be done with this monstrosity? Why, to kill Fidel Castro, of course. Lung cancer would be the official cause of death, caused by all those cigars he liked to smoke.

Castro is now over 90 years old, so he never got the bioweapon.

But it was created, and it’s in the possession of the C.I.A.

They paid for it.

It was a joint operation between Alton Ochsner, the C.I.A., the Mafia (the C.I.A. outsources some work to the Mafia from time to time, and the New Orleans don had an axe to grind with JFK), and anti-Castro Cuban expatriates.

Why kill Castro?

He brought communism to Cuba, which ousted big business from the island nation.

80 percent of business in Cuba under Fulgencio Batista was owned by U.S. corporations.

Lots of brothels and casinos there were run by U.S. Mafia dons.

Cubans could no longer train to become physicians at Alton Ochsner’s clinic, hospital, or Tulane Medical School, all in New Orleans.

All that went away when Castro settled into power and declared the nation communist.

Now it was Russia for medical training, no chance of becoming wealthy, and Americans out.

Reading the book Dr. Mary’s Monkey left me wondering about the motive for killing her.

What was the reason? Was she killed by accident, or deliberately?

Slightly more than halfway through Judyth Vary Baker’s other book, David Ferrie: Mafia Pilot, Participant in Anti-Castro Bioweapon Plot, Friend of Lee Harvey Oswald and Key to the JFK Assassination, I finally had my answer.

She had been cautiously – or so she thought and hoped – probing Dr. Alton Ochsner for information on his business contacts, and then passing this information on to David Ferrie. Ochsner was connected through his New Orleans clinic to wealthy oil men from Houston and Dallas, Texas, Chicago, Illinois, and Miami, Florida, who had ties to Lyndon B. Johnson, and who wanted JFK dead.

Ferrie, meanwhile, infiltrated the expatriate anti-Castro Cuban community, giving them guerilla training and running errands at night by plane into and out of Cuba. He was uniquely situated to gather information about their plans to do JFK in.

There’s the motive for killing both of them.

David Ferrie was killed on February 22, 1967 in his apartment with some pills that caused a cerebral hemorrhage. It looked like suicide to the casual observer, but D.A. Jim Garrison wasn’t fooled. He promptly checked the manner of death with a forensic pathologist. Ferrie’s death came at an all-too-convenient time – in the midst of the trial that Garrison was preparing in which he would prosecute Clay Shaw, the director of the International Trade Mart (a position that Dr. Alton Ochsner had placed Shaw in), for the murder of JFK. The benefit of that trial proved to be more about bringing out the entire story than anything else, but even that was well worth the effort.

How did Lee Harvey Oswald fit into this?

He was a C.I.A. agent with ties to Carlos Marcello, the Mafia don of New Orleans. He grew up around the mob in his hometown of New Orleans, where his mother, Marguerite, lived (and dated Marcello’s driver at one point), and where his uncle and aunt and cousins lived.

lee-harvey-oswald-photo-taken-in-minsk-commission-exhibit-no-2892

Lee Harvey Oswald. Photo taken in Minsk. Warren Commission Exhibit No. 2892.

Oswald had connections to both worlds. A life-long ambition of his was to become a spy – on behalf of his country, not against it. He was a U.S. Marine, a decent but not spectacular shot, and he aspired to a college education, which his uncle had taught him to care about. He was in and out of school a lot growing up, and he studied independently, focusing on Russian language and literature, Greek philosophy, American literature, and whatever else interested him or became necessary for his work.

He not only left the United States for a few years to live and work in Russia – and got married there to protect his cover – but returned, unchallenged, thanks to a loan for travel costs, which he repaid. No one gets back in without an arrest and interrogation unless it has been planned all along. This was Soviet, communist Russia he was returning from, not some pleasant nation like France or the Netherlands, after all.

Over the summer of 1963, in New Orleans, he was needed to assist with the work of the “Project” as it was called – the bioweapon in development. The people working on it including Dr. Mary S. Sherman, Judyth Vary Baker, David Ferrie, and some anti-Castro, expatriate Cubans.

Who was Judyth Vary Baker?

She was a prodigy in cancer research, only 19 years old when she arrived in April. Her work, from high school through her first two years of college, had been publicized in newspapers around the nation. She was eminently suitable for use as a sophisticated laboratory assistant in a secret project. She had a high I.Q. plus the requisite field experience to do the work while being young and naïve about politics and the motives of the individuals running the Project.

They were using her, and it took her most of the summer to see that.

By then, it was too late.

It was too late to stop the bioweapon from being created, from opening it up to the possibility of theft and use by forces unknown and disappearing to be stashed away for some nefarious future use, and it was too late for her medical career. The moment she protested the use of human subjects in the clinical phase of developing the bioweapon, the deal with Ochsner was off: NO admission to medical school.

She was out of science altogether.

David Ferrie, who told her that she was like the daughter he never had, warned her to stay out of science and never use her maiden name.

She didn’t. She used her married one, went into anthropology and art, and tried not to think about 1963, Lee, the assassination, or any of the lies connected with it. She was so upset when Lee was killed that she couldn’t see her hands for a few days.

When the JFK movie came out, she was still raising her kids and not ready to speak out.

But later, she thought of what David Ferrie had said to her in that last phone call, one that he took a significant risk to make. He had said that she had to stay alive to someday tell Lee’s daughters, June and Rachel, that their father wasn’t an assassin, but was instead a hero who tried to keep John F. Kennedy alive…and who probably bought him some extra weeks of life by phoning in a warning to the F.B.I. in Chicago, Illinois.

Efforts to Discredit Judyth Vary Baker

Stephen Roy a.k.a. David Blackburst is a leader of these efforts. For decades, he has been saying that he is preparing a biography of David Ferrie, interviewing witnesses and then outliving them, without releasing any book. JFK assassination writing is a big business, and Judyth Vary Baker came into the discussion after the book mills had built up considerable steam. She has written about her summer 1963 love affair with Lee Harvey Oswald, during which time she got to know David Ferrie, and she has released a biography on David Ferrie himself. Her contradictory testimony, if taken seriously, would relegate much of those products to the realm of toilet paper rather than credible data. The authors of those books will have none of that risk, hence the vitriol.

She was kicked out of The Education Forum in 2005 for speaking out about what she knows. Despite the fact that she has been unable to interact with other writers on it for over a decade, they continue to bash her. Why? They continue to view her as a threat to their livelihoods.

Here is a sample of what is being said about her books and statements – from 2014:

Judyth Vary Baker to be on Coasttocoastam tomorrow night

Started by Douglas Caddy, Nov 28 2014 04:32 PM

142 replies to this topic:

Stephen Roy

Advanced Member

858 posts

Posted 28 November 2014 – 10:03 PM

Oh, goody.

The real truth about everything. Just ask her manager.

Posted 01 December 2014 – 12:15 AM

Wow!

The summary is just as much baloney as the book! She’s consistently wrong about everything.

Posted 03 December 2014 – 11:49 PM

Just for the record: The whole story is untrue.

I’ve seen people speculate that maybe it’s only partly true, but they’re wrong too. She was a good science student, and she worked at Reilly Coffee in the summer of 1963, but she did not have a relationship – ANY relationship, ever – with Oswald, Ferrie, Sherman, Shaw, Ruby, etc. The whole story is untrue.

The same goes for the story she based it on, Haslam’s Dr. Mary’s Monkey, which is also untrue. He never even comes close to providing evidence for his speculations, not least whether Ferrie and Sherman were even acquainted.

There are important things to consider in the JFK assassination. These claims are not among them.

Posted 04 December 2014 – 05:48 PM

I find it alarming that she’s not only been able to push this story, writing multiple books and huckstering for money, but she’s now trying to insert herself into the legitimate research community by holding conferences and co-opting a few well-known names.

She has every right to research and fight for the things she believes, but not at the expense of polluting the evidence stream with notional stories.

Just for the record: The whole story is untrue.

http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/index.php?showtopic=21523&hl=%2Bjudyth+%2Bvary+%2Bbaker

And so on and on it goes.

The people in this discussion group come off as jealous bullies who can’t be bothered to publish their own work, as people who resent the testimony of an eye witness being published subsequent to their guesswork, and just plain libelous.

Actual evidence is provided by Judyth Vary Baker, and by others whom these trolls disparage, but they don’t agree with it, they don’t like it, and they find that it conflicts with their long-vested interests. It is intriguing to see how often Stephen Roy’s words are simply copy-pasted by others, words which represent opinion, and expressed rudely. Simply repeating what he said does not make it true; it merely indicates a gang mentality.

People can read and take seriously whatever they want to read and take seriously, but this is a forum for committing libel and being rude, not for serious scholarship or journalism.

Academia may seem, to outsiders, like an all-knowing, all-credible, all-vetted, and completely and consistently honest group, but it varies, as does any other profession.

Not all members of any group are honest. This goes for scholars, journalists, spies, clerics, and any other respected profession. They demand respect, but I see no reason why that should lead to an automatic grant of respect. Earn it! Prove you deserve it. An authority figure should not be worshipped and revered merely for being in a position of authority. Obedience is not respect, nor is it credence. It is merely quiet observation conducted during an act of self-protection.

As for Judyth Vary Baker, she is a scholar who has honestly and diligently presented what she has to share.

This includes memories of conversations with Lee Harvey Oswald in which he told her that he was a good shot, but not good enough to successfully kill someone in a moving car, that as of July 29, 1963, he had realized that he would be killed for knowing too much and for making a suitable and convenient patsy, and that there were some names she needed to remember as perpetrators/co-conspirators in the assassination: David Atlee Phillips, Bobby Baker, and Billy Sol Estes.

David Atlee Philips was a C.I.A. officer who worked in Mexico City, Mexico, in 1963 and coordinated the assassination plot

Bobby Baker was a Washington, D.C. insider and advisor to Lyndon B. Johnson who was often referred to as the 101st “Senator”. He knew all about Johnson’s shady Texas business deals (there were many), and arranged for various Mafia deals as well. LBJ was desperate to see the assassination through because JFK was about to drop him from the 1964 Presidential election ticket, and his dirty deals would have come to light…but not if JFK ended up dead. The night before the assassination, LBJ tried to arrange a two-for by visiting JFK and Jackie’s hotel suite in Dallas to ask that his political enemy, Senator Ralph Yarborough, ride in the President’s limousine…instead of Texas Governor John Connolly. That was too strange a request; Yarborough rode with Johnson instead, and lived, while Johnson listened in on the Secret Service channel via the his car radio.

Billy Sol Estes was a Texas businessman known for being involved in Johnson’s many scandals.

Want details? Read all about it in Judyth Vary Baker’s books. I’m not going to repeat everything I’ve learned here – just the highlights.

It’s fascinating, and the data adds up.

judyth-vary-baker-today-oswald-conference-publicity-photo

Judyth Vary Baker Today (Oswald Conference Publicity Photo).

She visits Lee’s grave as often as she can, and that grave has gone from being an alternately reviled and ignored one to one that is covered with flowers and visited lovely by his daughters, by scholars, by people who have been involved in the making of the Oliver Stone movie JFK, and others who now understand, appreciate, and admire Lee Harvey Oswald, seeing him for what he is: an unsung hero.

the-2015-ceremony-at-lee-harvey-oswalds-gravesite-flowers-laid-by-judyth-vary-baker

Shannon Rose Hill Memorial Burial Park in Fort Worth – Oswald’s grave.

Shannon Rose Hill Cemetery in Fort Worth, Texas contains the modest burial plaque of Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President Kennedy. As part of an annual excursion led by Judyth Vary Baker (author of “Me and Lee” and “David Ferrie: Mafia Pilot”), more than a dozen individuals who attended the JFK Assassination Conference in Dallas drove out to the cemetery grounds on November 23, 2015 to lay flowers on Oswald’s grave and pay their respects. At the conclusion of the ceremony, Judyth and Robert J. Groden offered their respective prayers to Oswald, and the group performed an a cappella version of the time-honored hymn, Amazing Grace.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yJDhZwxQAuY

So why have all these convenient disappearances, deaths, and suicides if Lee Harvey Oswald was the lone shooter in the JFK assassination? These people were connected to the entire situation, each in one way or another.

The answer is an obvious one: so that they won’t be around to contradict that assertion.

There was no lone shooter…from three different vantage points, with just one seemingly magic bullet that arced in various directions, wounding two different men repeatedly, one fatally.

When the rest of the data is finally revealed to the American public and the rest of the world in 2035, we may find that it merely confirms what we have already figured out. People aren’t stupid. We think, read, analyze, and question.

However, by that time, all of the perpetrators of the assassination will be dead of natural causes.

That is the real purpose behind making us all wait, and wait, and wait.

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Gleeful Gloating and Protests Are Sweeping the Nation and the News Waves

John Adams said that democracy eventually commits suicide.

It has done so.

It only took 240 years, but then, human overpopulation really took off fast, too.

Some say that the American Dream is dead. I say that it’s been dead for quite a while thanks to human overpopulation and all that that brings with it. There are not enough resources nor is there enough land to accommodate the desires of every human here for a home of their own with sufficient space for privacy plus water for growing one’s own food…plus access to fresh fruits and vegetables that are not genetically modified with insecticides…plus access to higher education without a lifetime of debt slavery. That debt slavery makes it impossible to access that home in the first place. Got out of debt? Wow…but wait – if you have an injury or illness, you’ll be right back into debt if you get treatment for it! We’re going back to no healthcare safety net.

Now we have no say in any branch of government. The Republican Party, the GOP, has taken all three branches. They will be choosing our missing ninth Justice for the U.S. Supreme Court. Another Scalia, anyone?

Antonin Scalia did not follow the law when he had his chance to write the opinion that became law, known as the Judgment of the Court, for the gun case District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008). He skipped a chunk of the Second Amendment and never addressed it. He did and wrote what he wanted instead. He focused exclusively on only the segments that the National Rifle Association likes, and which they have in the lobby of their headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia.

Here, with missing segment struck through, is the text of the Second Amendment of the Constitution of the United States:

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

Yes, we should bear arms. We should do as the Swiss do, so that no one can march in and take us over. What we should not do is fail to ensure that sane people have weapons. Serial killers have enough options without adding guns to the mix. So do out-of-control wife beaters. I could keep going, but the point is that weapons, kept in a locker near homes but not inside of them, not constantly on our persons, would be sufficient. Every Swiss adult, both male and female, is required to own and know how to use a weapon, and to keep it this way.

That’s not all.

Anything that has been achieved to benefit women will now be taken away.

we-need-to-ensure-that-women-wont-be-fighting-in-the-future-for-rights-we-won-in-the-past

We might as well count on life as depicted in Margaret Atwood’s A Handmaid’s Tale. In that novel, the ecosystem has been toxified by nuclear war and the ruling elite’s reproductive systems have failed. Women are kidnapped from their husbands to become handmaids in elite house, with a bizarre sex ritual every time they menstruate. This is done in the faint hope, on the part of the ruling elite, that the husband’s zygote might still be viable. It wouldn’t, of course, because those men went out into the war theater and got toxified and their DNA got mutated.

The point of mentioning this tale is that women can expect to lose control of our fertility. Good luck accessing safe, legal abortions. Good luck accessing reliable birth control. Good luck – we’ll need it in order to call the shots on whether or not we will bring any babies into existence.

This is something that men ought to have no say in. They don’t get pregnant, and they don’t get stuck taking care of the babies. Actually, if they wanted a say in NOT reproducing, I would be all for it. A woman should not legally be allowed to continue a pregnancy that the man whose sperm contributed to doesn’t want to deal with either. Another option is vasectomies and tubal ligation. Hurry up with those, before Trump takes office!

So…women’s rights are about to be undone. Without reproductive control, we’re trapped.

It’s back to the 1950s, a time that the frat boys and many people who were young, white, and entitled in that time long for with nostalgia.

What was it really like then?

Check other history than just the rosy images. Look at the lynchings, the apartheid at rest rooms, restaurants, cafés, transportation, water fountains, and think of how miserable it was if you weren’t white. Look at the gay bashings and beating deaths that homosexuals suffered.

Corporations had no restrictions on activities that toxified or otherwise destroyed ecosystems.

Some people would be just fine with that, while others would even be gleeful.

It is disturbing but not surprising to realize that such individuals exist.

They look at migrant workers who are in the United States, both legally and illegally, and want them gone. All those pickers of produce must go, because white people ought to have their thankless, toxic, low-wage and under-the-table-wage jobs, they believe. Just think, the angry, entitled KKK could have those jobs, and they could be the ones sprayed with insecticide by huge agribusinesses!

But back to the election results…

It has always seemed pointless and impossible to engage in any meaningful discussion with Trumpsters, GOP Republicans, or other individuals on the political right. Why? I have an idea:

They are like the selfish, entitled fraternity brothers I saw in college and avoided like the plague. They just want what they want – a legal, social, and economic situation that mirrors the 1950s – and they don’t care how others want anything.

That situation feels like death…just completely unacceptable.

I know that there are those among the groups I just mentioned who view liberals on the left the same way, and think of the support for Bernie Sanders similarly.

It doesn’t change a thing.

We’re in for it: at least four years of Donald Trump, who grabs and gropes women, who habitually wears a facial expression that says he has no use for disagreement.

The fascist misogynist is being briefed on state secrets already.

The trappings of a dictator, warning signs that a Trump government would accept no dissent, democracy be damned, have always been apparent. They’ve been there for all to see for decades: gilded décor in Trump’s living quarters, obnoxious, crass behavior, trophy wives, and a statement that if he were ever to run for U.S. President, he’s run as a Republican because those voters are the dumbest group in the country. Congratulations, GOP voters!

donald-trump-1998-people-magazine-interview

Aaron Burr wanted to be emperor. Alexander Hamilton died in a duel with him.

Hitler wanted to make Germany great again. It went down in ashes and disgrace.

Angela Merkel lost her mind and her nation’s solvency over that disgrace.

Here we go again as history repeats itself.

The GOP voters think that another fascist regime is the answer to all of their frustrations. They’re not interested in any logical explanation for their problems, nor in any research. They want immediate gratification. They want control of resources and they want it now, even if that means grabbing it…snatching it…the law and the legislative process be damned.

I wonder though, whether or not Trump will be able to go quite that far. He’s the only non-politician who won an office, and the U.S. President cannot just do as he pleases. There are checks that even the politicians in the GOP may decide to use.

Trump has had his fun, and now there are those among his supporters who are smugly saying that Hillary’s supporters ought to take the proverbial high road and just accept his win. NO. It’s all too easy to take the high road when you get what you want and then tell others to suck it up. We won’t be doing that. I was never a gloater when I got what I wanted, when the candidate I supported won. Instead, I was quietly polite when I met people who wanted the other candidate.

Don’t try to rub my nose in anything, because I won’t just put up with it. That is bullying, and that is what is so unacceptable about seeing a bully get enough electoral votes to win the election, regardless of the fact that he failed to win enough popular votes to do so.

Neil DeGrasse Tyson has said that we have a new mission for the next four years: Make America Smart Again. Bill Maher has said that too many Americans fill their brains with mindless, irrelevant crap, such as sports match scores. Both are right.

A fascinating idea appeared, but it seems too good to actually happen: rogue Electors.

Electors with a capital “E” means those of the Electoral College.

The one scenario that could still get Hillary into the White House

There are several petitions circulating online about abolishing the Electoral College.

Sign them if you want, but they won’t have the slightest effect.

petition-to-abolish-the-electoral-college

I signed and posted this one earlier today, but there is absolutely no way that what it seeks will happen. Also, I will read a book on the Electoral College, because I am determined to understand it sharply rather than just vaguely. But with an all-GOP government, checks and balances, along with the slightest chance of passing an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, are gone.

If our politicians did anything to make that happen, they would be erasing their own influence. They have absolutely no motivation to do that.

To see what it would take to pass an amendment to the U.S. Constitution, just read Article V:

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the First Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

So, to explain this in the language of the 21st century…

One method is to propose an amendment, which must then go to the states to be ratified.

BOTH houses of Congress – the Senate AND the House of Representative – must, by a two-thirds majority, deem it necessary to do so, or the deal is off.

Alternatively, the legislatures of two-thirds of the States – that’s 34 of them – must require Congress to convene a special convention just for this purpose.

That’s just the start of the process.

What’s next? Ratification is next. To achieve that:

The legislatures of three-fourths – that’s 38 – of the States must ratify the amendment.

Or…

State ratifying conventions in that same number of States must be convened and held for that purpose, and, of course, the votes for ratification must carry.

No wonder our Constitution has only 27 amendments to it, 10 of which were the Bill of Rights, which is as revered as the main document itself. That means that this process has only been used 18 times in United States history.

1808 was chosen as the cut-off year for revisions to the numbers of people from each state who could vote in any way shape or form on the outcome of a national election.

What do the 1st and 4th Clauses of Section 9 of Article I say?

Section 1:

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

Section 4:

No Capitation, or other direct Tax, shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

But there was another amendment – the 12th Amendment – in 1804 about this. It created the Electoral College. That entity has 538 members – 535 for the States, plus 3 more for the District of Columbia (granted via the 23rd Amendment in 1961).

Here is the 12th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in time for the 1804 election:

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and all persons voted for as Vice-President and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate.

The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted.

The person having the greatest Number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.

The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

There it is: the Electoral College. We the People do not have the final say. The Founders did not think us capable of choosing wisely.

Our last hope is that the protests of the people now seen in the cities around the nation will influence some Electors to go rogue and change their votes on December 19th, 2016.

I’m not going to hold my breath. I will look to see what happens, but I doubt anything will be different on that day. If it does prove to be different, it would be historic, that much is certain.

It’s Veterans Day, a day when Americans thank those who have served in the military for doing so. Thank you, veterans. I hope none of you voted for a guy who only respects and likes those who were never captured.

We live in the Untied States of America. I wrote that into a chapter title of my Nae-Née series. Now it’s reality, damn it.